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Improvised Munitions Handbook (Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs) . This manual includes methods for fabricating explosives, detonators, propellants. 2 IMPROVISED MUNITIONS FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY IMPROVISED MUNITIONS This Manual includes methods for fabricating explosives, detonators. TM Improvised Munitions Handbook (Department of the Army) TM Department of the Army Technical Manual: Improvised Munitions.

Improvised Munitions Handbook Pdf

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ppti.info ( pages, Zipped, MB) Improvised Munitions Handbook (Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs). Improvised Weaponry - Improvised Munitions Handbook (TM ).pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Improvised Improvised Munitions Handbook - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free.

This book is an instruction manual for guerilla fighters that not only tells you how to make explosives, but even primitive guns as well. When reading this, one can get an idea of how such underground fighters of the Viet Cong, Mujahidin, Mau Maus and others fashioned weapons out of scrape to fight their enemies.

It was said that the stuff the The "U. Reading this book gives you a pretty good idea how they did that. Included are instructions as to how and where to find your materials, or make them, and then how to use them. Do you want to know how to make a shaped charge from a coke bottle that will blow a hole in armor plate?

Do you want to use beans as a timing mechanism for a delay action bomb? This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article is an orphan , as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. October This article includes a list of references , related reading or external links , but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. Make small knot near one end of fuse. Place black powder and knotted end of fuse in paper and tie with string.

Hole Fuse String Black Powder 3. Thread fuse through hole in end cap and place package in end cap. Screw end cap onto pipe, being care ful that black powder package is not caught between the threads. Roll rag wad so that it is about 6 in, IS cm long and has approxi- mately the same diameter as the pipe. Push rolled rag into open- end of pipe until it rests against black powder package. Hold grenade safety lever In place and carefully withdraw safety pin.

If grenade safety lever is released for any reason, grenade will explode after regular time. Holding safety lever in place, carefully push grenade into pipe, lever end first, until it rests against rag wad.

See Section VI, No. IX and Since performance of different black powder varies, fire several test rounds to determine the exact amount of powder necessary to achieve the desired range. Open end should face the expected path of the enemy. Be sure cardboard prevents dirt from entering pipe. The 14 in. Light fuse when ready to fire. Be aure that bulb is in good operating condition. Prepare electric bulb initiator as described in Section VI, No.

Place electric initiator and black powder charge in paper. Tie ends of paper with string. Connecting Wires 3. Follow above Procedure, Steps 3 to end. Follow above How to Use, Step 1. Connect leads to firing circuit. Close circuit when ready to fire. Section IV 81 No. Round off end of bolt with file Nut 3, Place bolt through hole in end cap. Secure in place with nuts as illustrated.

Fuse 4. Screw end cap onto pipe tightly. Bury launching tuba la ground at desired angle ao that bottom of tube is at leaat 2 ft.

TM 31-210 Improvised Munition Handbook

See following table for launching angle and number of increments used. Launching Tube Section V 81i No. Finned End 2. When ready to fire, withdraw safety wire from mortar projectile. Be sure bore riding pin is In place In fuse when mortar pro- jectile Is dropped Into tube.

A live mortar round could explode in the tube if the fit Is loose enough to permit the bore riding pin to come out partway. Small Bottle or jar with lid. Rag or absorbent paper paper towels, newspaper. String or rubber bands. If battery acid or other dilute acid is used, concentrate it by boiling until dense white fumes are given off.

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Container used should be of enamel- ware or oven glass. The round will fire as soon is the projectile Is avowed! Keep all parts of body behind the open end of the tube. Remove the acid from heat and allow to cool to room temperature. Wrap a clean cloth or several A. Tie with String string or fasten with rubber bands. Bottle can be used wet or after solution has dried. How- ever, when dry, the sugar - Potassium chlorate mixture is very sensitive to spark or flame and should be handled accordingly.

Throw or launch the bottle. When the bottle breaks against a hard surface target the fuel will ignite. Section V 66 No. Use With Molotov Cocktail Tape the "match end tab' of the igniter to the neck of the molotov cocktail. General Use The book match igniter can be used by itself to ignite flammable liquids, fuse cords and similar items requiring hot ignition. Material Required Paper book matches. Adhesive or friction tape Procedure I, Remove the staple s from match book and separate matches from cover.

Fold and tape one row of matches. Damp or wet paper book matches will not ignite. Shape the cover into a tube with striking surface on the inside and tape.

Make sure the folded cover will fit tightly around the taped match heads. Leave cover open at opposite end for in- sertion of the matches.

Flatten and fold the open end of the tube so that it laps over about 1 in. Section V 88 No. Cut 2 slots on opposite sides of the tin can at the line farthest from the open end. Make slots large enough for the flat stick or piece of metal to pass through. Punch 2 small holes just below the rim of the open end of the can.

Holes 9. Fill the jar with gasoline and cap tightly Turn can over and place over the jar so that the safety stick rests on the lid of the jar. Tape blue tip matches together in pairs. The distance between the match heads should equal the inside diameter of the can. Two pairs are sufficient. Attach paired matches to second and third coils of the spring, using thin wire. Matches 6. Insert the end of the spring opposite the matches into the tin can.

Compress the spring until the end with the matches passes the slot in the can. Pass the flat stick or piece of metal Matches through slots in can to hold spring in place. This acts as a safety device. Pass wire or twine around the bottom of the jar.

Thread ends through holes in can and bind tightly to jar. Tape wire or cord to jar near the bottom. Punch many closely spaced small holes between the lines marked on the can to form a striking surface for the matches.

Be careful not to seriously deform can. Carefully withdraw flat safety stick. The acid will react with the lye and break down the gel. Methyl wood alcohol or isopropyl rubbing alcohol can be substituted for ethyl alcohol, but their use produces softer gels.

The following can be substituted for the tallow: Make sure that there are no open flames when mixing the flame fuel. Pour gasoline into jar, bottle or other container. If rosin is in cake form, crush into small pieces. Add rosin or castor oil to the gasoline and stir for about five 5 minutes to mix thoroughly. It is necessary when using substitutes c to e to double the given amount of fat and of lye for satisfactory bodying. Make sure that there are no open flames in the area when mixing flame fuels.

Pour gasoline into bottle, jar or other container. Add alcohol to the gasoline mixture.

Mixture should be stirred constantly while adding lye. Lye solution can burn skin and destroy clothing. If any is spilled, wash away immediately with large quantities of water. The mixture will eventually 1 to 2 days thicken to a very arm paste. This can be thinned, if desired, by stirring in additional gasoline. Section V 4. Lye s I any is spilled, w; olution can burn akin and destroy clothing.

If wash away immediately with large quantities of water. Add lye solution to the gasoline mix and stir until mixture thickens about one minute. The sample will eventually thicken to a very firm paste. This fuel is not suitable for use in the chemical Sulphuric Acid type of fire bottle Section V, No, 1.

Methyl wood or isopropyl rubbing alcohols can be substituted for the whiskey. Unless the word "soap" actually appears somewhere on the container or wrapper, a washing compound is probably a detergent. These Can Not Be Used. If bar soap is used, carve into thin flakes using a knife, 2.

Pour egg white into ajar, bottle, or other container and add 2. Ingredient How Used Gasoline Latex. It alum. With Commercial Rubber Latex: Cap bottle and. If any is spilled, wash away immediately with larce quantities of water. With Natural Latex In. Natural latex should form lumps as it comes from the plant. If lumps do not form, add a small amount of acid to the latex.

Strain off the latex lumps and allow to dry in air. Place 20 parts by volume of latex in bottle and add B0 parts by volume of gasoline. Cover pottle and allow to stand until a swollen gel mass is obtained 2 to 3 days.

XUi No. Any one of the following: Obtaining wax from Natural Sources: Plants and berries, are potential sources of natural waxes. The natural waxes will melt. Let the water cool. The natural waxes will form a solid layer on the water surface. Skim off the solid wax and let it dry. With natural waxes which have suspended matter when melted, screen the wax through a cloth.

Melt the wax and pour into jar or bottle which has been placed in a hot water bath. Add gasoline to the bottle. When wax has completely dissolved in the gasoline, allow the water bath to cool slowly to room temperature. Section V No. Preparation of animal blood serum: Slit animal's throat by jugular vein.

Hang- up-side down to drain. Place coagulated lumpy blood in a cloth or on a screen and catch the red fluid serum which drains through. Store in coot place if possible. Do not get aged animal blood or the serum into an open cut. Pour blood serum into jar. Add the salt or other additive to the mixture and stir until a gel forma. Section V 10k No. Sulphuric acid muat be concentrated.

If battery acid or other dilute acid is used, concentrate it by boiling. Container used should be of enamelware or oven glass. When dense white fumes begin to appear, immediately remove the acid from heat and allow to cool to room temperature. F are also dangerous and should not be inhaled. Place the tube containing the Sugar Chlorate crystals on an incendiary or flammable material taped end down. Turn the jar of sulphuric acid cap end down and slide it into the open end of the tube.

Dissolve one part by volume of Potassium Chlorate and one part by volume of sugar in two parts by volume of boiling water. Allow the solution to cool. When crystals settle, pour off and discard the liquid. Form a tube from cardboard just large enough to fit around the outside of the jar and 2 to 3 times the height of the jar. Tape one end of the tube closed. Stand the tube aside to dry. After a time delay, the acid will eat through the rubber disc and ignite the sugar chlorate mix. The delay time depends upon the thickness and type of rubber used for the disc.

Before using this device, tests should be conductei determine the delay time that can be expected.

Section VI No. Cut a disc from rubber sheet so that it just fits snugly inside the lid of the jar. Partly fill jar with water, cover with rubber disc and cap tightly with the drilled lid.

Invert bottle and allow to stand for a few minutes to make sure that there are no leaks. Replace the rubber disc and cap tightly. Break the glass of the elec- tric light bulb. Take care not to damage the filament. The ini- tiator will NOT work if the fila- ment is broken. Remove all glass above the base of the bulb. Join the tube with ad- hesive tape.

If no eocket ie available for connecting the initiator to the firing circuit, solder the con- necting wires to the bulb bass. Adhesive or friction tape. Fuse cord improvised or commercial. Pin or small nail. Push pin or small nail through matches and fuse cord. Bend end of pin or nail. Method of Use To light the fuse cord, the igniter is held by both hands and pulled sharply or quickly.

Fuse lengths should not exceed 12 in. Position the burning cigarette with fuse so that it burn, freely. A suggested method is to hang the delay on NOTE Common dry cigarettes burn about 1 inch every 7 or 8 mmutes in -till air. If the fuse cord is placed 1 inch from the burning end of a cigarette a time delay of 7 or 8 minute, win result. Delay time will vary depending upon type of cigarette, wind, moisture, and other atmospheric condition..

To obtain accurate delay time, a test run should be made under "use" conditions. Paper match. String shoelace or similar cord. Small clean metal. Connecting wires.

Drill or nail. Procedure 1. If watch ha. If delay time of more than one hour is required, also remove the minute hand. If hand, are painted, care- fully.

Drill a hole through the crystal of the watch or pierce the cry. The hole mu. Light cigarette in normal fashion. Drill hole completely through the center of the plug and cap large enough that the nail fits loosely. Place the screw in the hole and turn down as far as possible without making contact with the face of the watch. If screw has a pointed tip, it may be necessary to grind the tip flat. If no screw is available, pass a bent stiff wire through the hole and tape to the crystal.

Remove the plug from the cap and push the flat head nail through the hole in the cap from the inside. Set the watch so that a hand will reach the screw or wire at the time you want the firing circuit completed. Wind the watch. Attach a wire from the case of the watch to one terminal of the battery. Cut the striking tips from approximately 10 strike -anywhere matches. Place match tips inside pipe cap and screw plug in 4. Attach one wire from an electric initiator blast- ing cap, squib, or alarm device tp the screw or wire on the face of the watch.

Slide the fuse cord into the hole in the pipe plug. After thorough inspection is made to assure that the screw or the wire connected to it is not touching the face or case of the watch, attach the other wire from the initia- tor to the second terminal of the battery. Tape igniter to fuse cord, Section VI llli No.

Screw the pipe plug tightly into the pipe cap. Tap point of nail on a hard surface to ignite the fuse. Determine the rate of rise of the dried seeds selected.

This is necessary to determine delay time of the timer. Place a sample of the dried seeds in the jar and cover with water. Expansion of the seeds will raise the metal disc until It?

Measure the time it takes for the seeds to rise a given height. Cut a disc from thin metal plate. Disc should fit loosely inside the jar. If metal is painted, rusty or otherwise coated, it must be scraped or sanded to obtain a clean metal surface. Drill two holes in the cap of the jar about 2 inches apart. Diameter of holes should be such that screws or bolts will thread tightly into them. Turn the two screws or bolts through the holes in the cap. Bolts should extend about one in.

Black Powder --or. Moisten fine Black Powder to form stitute as follows: Dissolve Potassium Nitrate in an equal amount of water b. Pulverize charcoal by spreading thinly on a hard surface and rolling the round stick over it to crush to a fine powder.

TM 31-210 (Improvised Munitions Handbook)

Pulverize sulphur in the same manner. Dry mix sulphur and charcoal. Add Potassium Nitrate solution to the dry mix to obtain a thoroughly wet paste. Pour dried seeds into the container. Place the metal disc in the jar on top of the seeds. JAR 3. Rub paste mixture into twi. Dissolve 1 part Potassium Nitrate or Potassium Chlorate and 1 part granulated sugar in 2 parts hot water.

Soak string or shoelaces in solution. Twist or braid three strands of string together and allow to dry. Check actual burning rate of the fuse by measuring the time it takes for a known length to burn.

Thia ia used to determine the length needed for the desired delay time. If 2 in. String 4. Thread string through hole in cigarette. The clothespin nay be notched to hold the string in place! The last few inches of this cord the end inserted in the material to be ignited should be coated with the fast burning Black Powder paste if possible. This must be done when the NOTE: The string must keep the rear end of the clothespin closed so fuse is used to ignite a blasting cap.

The burning rate of either of these fuses can vary] greatly. Do Not Use for ignition until you have checked their burning rate.

The system can be used for initiation of explosive charges, mines, and booby traps. Suapend the entire system verti- caLly with the cigarette tip down.

Light tip of cigarette. Switch will close and Initiation will occur when the cigarette burns up to and through the string. Strip about 4 inches 10 cm of insulation from the ends of 2 copper wires.

Scrape copper wires with pocket knife until metal is shiny. Wind one scraped wire tightly on one Jaw of the clothespin, and the other wire on the other Jaw so that the wires will be in contact with each other when the Jaws are closed.

Wires to the firing circuit must not be pulled taut when the twitch it mounted. This could prevent the Jaws from closing. Fuse cord must be the type thai burns completely. Fast burning improvised fuse cord Sec 'ion VI. Safety fuse is not satisfactory, since its outer covering does not burn. Knot Burning Length -i I. Bend end of safety lever upward to form a book.

Make a single loop of fuse cord around the center of the grenade body and safety lever. Tie a knot of the non-slip variety at the safety lever. Measuring from tip of cigarette, measure a length of cigarette that will correspond to the desired delay time.

Make s hole in cigarette at this point, using wire or pin. Delay time may be adjusted by varying the burning length of the cigarette. Burning rate in still air is approximately?

Since this rate varies with environment and brand of cigarette, measure off a length of fuse cord that will give the desired delay it should be tested in each case if accurate delay time is desired.

Cut off the excess fuse cord. The loop must be tight enough to hold the safety lever in posi- tion when the pin is removed. Place hand around grenade and safety ever so safety lever is held in place. Carefully remove pin. Emplace grenade in desired location while holding grenade and safety lever.

Light free and of fuse cord. Section VI 12l No. Make 2 small holes at opposite sides of the can very close to the top. Remove insulation from a long piece of wire for a distance a Utile greater than the diameter of the can. Secure the wire in place across the top of the can by threading it through the holes and twisting in place, leaving some slack. Make loop in center or wire. Be sure a long piece of wire extends from one end of the can. Wrap a piece of insulated wire around the block of wood.

Scrape insulation from a small section of this wire and band as shown so that wire contacts loop before wood touches bottom of container. Thread this wire through the loop of bare wire.

Make a very small hole pinhole in the side of the container. Fill container with a quantity of liquid corresponding to the desired delay time. Since the rate at which liquid leaves the can depends upon weather conditions, liquid used, size of hole, amount of liquid in the container. Delays from a few minutes to many hours are possible. Vary time by adjusting liquid 'level, type of liquid water, oil and hole size.

Be sure that woodan block float, on liquid and that wire la free to move down aa liquid leavea container. Connect wirea to firing circuit.

A long term delay can be obtained by placing a volatile ltn,,irf ZTZEl 1!? Grenade Nail Safety fuse? Unscrew fuse mechanism from body of grenade and re- move. Pliers may have to be uaad. Carefully cut with knife or break off detonator at crimp and aava for later use.

Place fuse mechanism aalde until delay fuse powder mix In mechanism is completely burned.

TM 31-210 (Improvised Munitions Handbook)

If detonator is cut or broken below the crimp, detonation may occur and severe injuries could result. Remove pin, spring, and striker. Insert safety fuse through top of primer hole. Knlarge hole If necessary. The fuse should go completely through the hole. Insert fuse into detonator and tape it securely to modified fuse mechanism.

Detonator NOTE: Be sure that fuse rests firmly against detonator at ail times. Screw modified fuse mechanism back into grenade. Grenade is now ready for use. Wrap tape around safety fuse. Securely tape fuse to grenade. Load grenade in launcher. Grenade will explode in approximately 12 seconds after safety fuse burns up to bottom of grenade. Grenade Nail "Strike-anywhere" matches, 6 to 8. Any safety or improvised fuse may be used.

However, since different time delays will result, determine the burning rate of the fuse first. Unscrew fuse mechanism from body of grenade and remove. Pliers may have to be used. Insert nail completely through safety hole hole over primer - Striker 3.

Carefully remove safety pin pull ring and lever, and allow striker to hit nail. If for any reason, striker should hit primer instead of nail, [detonator will explode after sec. Primer 4.

Push pin out and remove spring and striker. Remove nail. Carefully remove top section of fuse mechanism from bottom section by un- screwing. Fire primer by hitting nail placed against top of it. Do not hold assembly in your hand during above operation as serious burns may result. Wrap tape around aafety fuse.

Securely tape fuse to grenade 3. Load grenade In launcher. Grenade will explode in approximately 20 seconds after safety fuse burns up to bottom of grenade. Scrape delay fuse powder with a sharpened stick. Section VII no. Cut off tips not whole head of 6 "strike-anywhere" matches with sharp cutting edge.Attach one wire from an electric initiator blast- ing cap, squib, or alarm device tp the screw or wire on the face of the watch.

Build fire in pot or frying pan. Pour gasoline into jar, bottle or other container. Bend 4" metal strap into "L" shape and drill hole for wood screw. To load; a. Wooden Match Stick.

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