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One must be able to draw from the imagination in order to draw certain scenes. Which brings me to my ever-reaching, ever-striving attempts to understand and embrace human anatomy in all its variations and forms. There are many ways to go about the inside-to-outside approach, such as taking cadaver classes, studying Bridgeman, working with bones, and studying sculpture. The first main method is Industrial Design, which is probably to familiar to many artists but which is given a great treatment here.

The basic approach is to divide the figure into shapes and how those shapes function together. That comes from the industrial design method. The figure might appear three dimensional, but it also appears stiff, even with a dynamic pose. The first part of his series begins with the history of the method, basic how to steps, and some examples.

What I like about the way Lemen approaches the industrial design method is that he uses a lot of gestural flow and interconnects the working parts of the body that so they work as a functioning, smooth, dynamic flow. Instead of blocky shapes that are frozen, the bodies begin to show movement. Lemen begins with the whole shape and then takes a deeper look at each of the main body segments: torso, legs, arms, hands, head. Each section contains illustrations and suggestions for crafting workable poses from various angles and various movements.

Lemen discusses body types including natural female anatomy, heavy set men, and so on and how that impacts the shifting of weight, unlike many of the drawing manuals I have read where the best you can hope for is to stick some melons on the chest and call it done pro tip: breasts, not actually ball shaped! Who knew? I was enchanted to discover that Lemen realizes that breasts are more comma shaped. Each of the sections also covers the figure in movement—what happens to the torso, for instance, when the body bends to one side?

The outer line of the curve is smooth, and the inner line of the curve becomes wrinkled. There is a distinct flow of lines and balance, as the weight is on the ball of the foot and the thigh muscles are tensed.

Lemen has includes various poses, so that an artist can manipulate, copy, play with, practice from, or study at larger or smaller sizes. And the creme de la creme, a series of videos. To me, the video series included in the work is well worth the entrance fee.

The videos are quite simple, but for someone like me, who learns kinesthetically and visually, it is priceless. Beginning with blank paper and no references, the artist draws, free hand, a variety of lovely poses in the industrial arts style.

Some of the poses are later shown in the book. Exploring the Industrial Design drawing method Use basic geometric shapes to make your figures feel solid and three-dimensional Here, Im going to look at a second abstract approach to figure drawing: Its origins are age-old, but it was perfected at the Art Center of Pasadena in the s.

I find Industrial Design the most practical technique to use when creating the figure for any purpose. It makes it easy to control the pose and achieve convincing foreshortening painlessly. First, you need to sort the head, neck and shoulders. These provide a starting point to build the figure gesture from. Viewed from the front, the head is an oval shape, while in profile or side view, its a bloated triangular form.

The corners of the triangle depict the tilt of the head. The panel below shows some examples of cylinder figures in gesture poses, which is what you have to find next. The gesture of the pose is a fluid, flowing line: This cartoon character is fully realised using the shape design approach from life drawing.

The technique can be used for any gure. Here the gure is rendered with hatch lines, creating an immediate illusion of form. The lines crossing over the form are crossing in the short stroke direction. Use cylindrical forms to start every gure if you can. Cylinders are easy to draw and can easily be broken down into threedimensional forms. In extremely foreshortened poses, overlapping ovals representing the lengthier forms will work.

It should be graceful, and is ideally established in one or two curvy lines. Add to your first line a second line, which describes the width of the pose. This helps establish the overall volume of the figure heavy or lean.

These two lines should mirror each other, moving in relationship to one another. Line three is the centre line of the pose, attached to the pit of the neck. With a centre line drawn, you can now draw an ellipse or oval. This describes the depth of the form.

The centre line gives you another point you can now convincingly attach the oval to, turning your three lines into an active cylindrical form. Cylinders are easier to draw than a cube form, as you need to know perspective to make cubes look convincing. Cylinders, if drawn correctly in perspective, give the viewer a strong sense of position in space.

The shoulders are the top point of the cylinder, the pelvis its bottom. The pelvis varies in shape depending on what character youre drawing. It can be drawn as a soft, sphere-like shape think of it as a marshmallow or can be more defined. Your subjects gender determines the pelvis shape. Female pelvises are more bellor skirt-shaped; male pelvises are more box-shaped. The front of the pelvis terminates in a bullet-like shape. This is drawn inside the body cylinder shape,.

You can map shadows to the shapes you design on the scaffolding of the gure, with the patterns falling appropriately over the shapes youve drawn rather than drawing exactly what you see. The illusion of the drawing can suffer if you stick too rigidly to what you see without really thinking about how the forms are functioning in 3D space. Draw the pelvis with lines arching down.

This keeps the forms tilted correctly to the viewer from straight-on. If your figures back is visible, the scapulae, the dimples of the sacrum, the obliques and the base of the pelvis are also helpful to use as landmarks.

If the figure is twisting or turning, you can easily depict this movement in the cylinder by pinching one side, or by creating an accordionlike relationship between the ribcage and pelvis masses. The obliques play a role in shaping the cylinder: These bulges are described using S-curved lines see the panel to the right , the only line type in drawing that can generate perspective in its own waviness.

The S-curve starts against the outside of one shape, then swings over and completes its circuit below on the next succeeding shape. Each S-curve generates a more convincing illusion of overlapping forms. You should switch often between gesture and structure to strike a balance. If a figure is twisting or turning, you can easily depict this movement in the cylinder by pinching one side cutting in on either side to show the hip bones, the iliac crests.

Now draw an egg shape to indicate the ribcage, attaching it to the shoulder line and only breaching the cylinder form if the body is compressed or twisting. The rest of the torso is built up using ellipses or traversing lines across the centre line, to square up the two halves of the torso and pelvis. The important landmarks to indicate are the nipples, the tenth ribs, the iliac of form and movement, hopefully in a similar dynamic to Michelangelo or Rubens but with a modern flair, like that of Claire Wendling or Bruce Timm.

Once the structure is defined, move into gesture again, drawing the cylinders of the arms and the legs.

When your limbs are drawn in, move back into structure and define the muscles, then gesture again to describe the movement of the shadow patterns over the muscles, then structure to tighten them up. These drawings are eshing out the dynamic movement in each pose. Using cylinders and dividing each segment of the cylinders into thirds, the scaffolding of the body is ready for muscles to be laid over them.

The crosscontour lines help guide the muscles correctly around the form. Our physical actions also originate from this core therefore, you typically start with the torso in figure drawing to work out the dynamics of your pose. The head is the ruler that you measure the body from; the body is the primary essence of the pose. Both are important to draw from the start, but the head can stiffen up quickly with no reference to the body. If you design the body first, the.

When you draw a torso, you should take into account not only the muscle tone, but the age of the subject too. First, you need to find the action of the pose. This step is called the gesture. Using the Industrial Design method, as described on page 20, you can find this action in three lines: Once the gesture or action of the pose has been established, the limbs are then attached to complement the twist, turn or swivel of the torso.

With the head attached, you can measure off the height and width of the torso more appropriately, or adjust the. Next, draw a centre line through the middle of the torso. Simply put, the centre line of the back is the spine. The front of the body is divided through the centre of the chest, or the sternum, and continues through the line that splits the abdominal muscles down to the pelvis.

The centre line is very important to draw. It finds the middle of the visible surface to match and align the forms on either side of it, and its also an anchor and apex for matching rhythmical lines. Part 2 The torso from either side of the body. Neglecting to draw the centre line in your structure is like forgetting to bring the manager along to the big game. If you dont use boxes to design the pelvis and the ribcage, the next step is to find the three-quarter line of the figure, or where the figure turns from the frontal planes to the side of the body.

In many poses, this landmark can be as important as the centre line: The muscle wraps underneath the humerus towards the back of the arm, and is a ve-sided shape.

Torso muscles The front of the body is made up of six major visible muscle groups: Unfortunately, two of these muscle groups have multiple heads to them, but are well organised, so rendering them is just a matter of finding the larger shape that keeps the smaller ones organised and harmonised.

The body wedges down from the acromium processes the bumps at the shoulders and tapers to the base of the crotch.

The wedge forms the true front plane of the body; the masses on either side of the wedge taper at a sharp angle, and become a part of the side planes of the figure.

The wedge form passes through. Its striations, or muscle bre divisions, radiate in a fan-like shape, with the clavicular portion sitting on top of the mass. The female breast sits on top of the pectoralis, roughly between the seventh and eighth rib. It has a comma-like shape, tapering back under the arm toward the scapula.

The visible portion on either side of the neck creates a coathanger-like rhythm, which goes from the acromium processes at the shoulders to above the seventh cervical vertebrae, along the clavicles and across the sternal notch. From three-quarter view to prole, the trapezius muscle is a ramp, taking up about half the space of the top plane of the torso.

The ramp varies in height depending upon athletic build. Human anatomy Neglecting to draw in the centre line is like forgetting to bring the manager along to the big game Here are a few ways to start the torso. The rst is angular, the second box-like, the third spherical.

There is no right or wrong set of shapes, but there may be confusion in the structural design if there are too many shapes to start with. A more harmonious way is to maintain a shape design consistency throughout. These shapes are exible, bending on the spinal axis.

These muscles are the soft mass between the ribcage and the pelvis. They taper in narrowly at the ribcage and widen at the hips, resting atop the iliac crest. This wedge can be linked to the two lines that form the neck in a rhythmical relationship that helps keep the oblique muscles from becoming too unusual in their shape design. The obliques form true side walls perpendicular planes to the front and back planes of the body and blend with the angular sides of the ribcage.

The torso is extremely pliable between the ribcage and pelvis. The further you. The muscles on the front of the body are very pliable and can be stretched and twisted as much as needed to help enhance the gesture of the pose.

Its very important to start the pose with the gesture first, to seize the moment and the action. Then you can proceed to the structure of the pose, and finally the design and articulation of the muscle groups in the body.

If the gesture is dynamic, the muscles must follow that dynamic. Dont stiffen up the design at this point in the drawing. Everything is pliable, no matter how geometrically you might draw your pictures, and the shapes you design for the muscles must not stiffen up in the dynamic gesture youve created. Many comic book images show this latter trait, especially comics from the 80s and 90s. If you can find a few examples, they serve. D Heres how to build up a complete gure, starting with the core.

Use a rhythmical cylinder form to start the pose A , then nd the ribcage and pelvis forms within the rhythm lines; look for key bony points to keep the shapes squared up from top to bottom, and to nd the compression between them. Then the perspective is designed B with the three-quarter line drawn into the gure to help keep the muscle forms from drifting too close to the right arm.

The muscle rhythm lines are then added to ll out the anatomy structure C. All this should be done lightly so it can be easily removed when the nal rendering takes form.

When everything is nished, most of the anatomy will not be visible D , but the bumps and little dark markings drawn in the pose will have a more visual believability and more accurate design to them. The top two muscles are angular: The middle heads face at forward and the lower abs bulge at the top in a rounded taper towards the base of the pelvis.

The muscles have this structural design to help when the body leans forward. The gure on the far right has been drawn using construction forms to keep the anatomy geometric, planar and simple. The right side is pinching or bending in; as a result, the shapes on the right prole all take on a bulging appearance from compression.

The left side of the gure is stretched out, and the shapes relate to this. This relationship keeps all the muscle heads organised in the architecture of the bones of the torso. The serratus muscles connect the scapula to the ribcage from beneath the scapula. The muscle heads originate along the inside edge of the scapulae on the back, closest to the spine, and terminate halfway along the rst nine ribs.

These muscles insert snugly into the obliques, and radiate in an arc on the side of the body, with all the muscles fanning out from top to bottom. The ank portion of the muscle sits between the ribcage and pelvis on the sides of the body.

The ank drapes over the iliac crest, giving the pelvis what looks like a downturn on the tops, rather than the upturn of the bones design. They have three distinct visible planes from the side of the torso. The rest of the oblique travels up the ribcage and laces together with the serratus muscles, and blends to the abdominal appaneurosis.

This means that to understand the relationships of the parts, you must see them all assembled together. Dont become critical of one drawn line; try to draw the entire pose quickly, then assess as a whole what can be fixed or altered to create a stronger, more convincing pose. As always with anatomy, no matter how much you know, theres always more to learn.

The muscles on the front of the body are very pliable and can be stretched and twisted as much as needed to help enhance the pose. Get a FREE digital trial subscription! Now you can read ImagineFX on your nook, Kindle Fire, and on your desktop computer or Android phone hatever device youve got, you can now draw your usual monthly inspiration from ImagineFX at the click of a button.

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Like the arm, the leg has groups of muscles that oppose one another in their action. For example, the quadriceps at the front of the body are used to extend the leg, with the bicep femoris, semi membranosis and tendonosis acting as flexors. Both the arms and the legs start wide at the torso and taper to about half that width at the wrists and ankles. The biggest structural difference is the organisation of muscles around the kneecap, which differs to the ridge or rotator muscles in the elbow. Now, without getting too caught up in the names, lets get down to discussing the shapes and rhythms in a leg, breaking the drawing down into easy steps.

You should start with a simple gesture: The hips are the pivot point for the legs, and act. Remember that both sides of the hips are fused together, unlike the shoulders, which float independently of each other. The tilt of the hips opposes the angle of the shoulders, meaning that the action at the top of the body is counterbalanced by the position of the lower body, which creates stability.

The hips can be drawn as one of several different masses, depending on your preferred drawing methodology, but they all serve the same function: Leg bones and muscles The pelvis is a narrow shape funnelling inward towards its base.

The wide point of the hips is created by the femur and the hip muscles, which are mostly responsible for connecting the leg to the body, and fill in the space between the pelvis and femur.

These hip muscles flair out in an A shape and act in a broadly similar way to the. Notice how the hips move to compensate for the tilt of the shoulders. If the legs are spread, they maintain an A-shape, distributing the weight of the gure evenly across the ground. Part 3 The legs Remember that both sides of the hips are fused together, unlike the shoulders, which float independently of each other shoulder muscles, which we look at in more detail on page Moving down the legs, the femurs both taper inward, forming a semi-V shape between them.

The figure looks knockkneed at this stage, but thats normal until we place muscles over the bones. In a standing position, the knees are almost directly below the iliac crests of the pelvis.

The thigh is divided into three major masses: All of these muscle groups start out large the muscle heads account for about two thirds of the length of the leg and taper around the knee as the muscles terminate in tendons, exposing more bone than they cover. Understanding gure proportions related to skull size can help you to interpret these arcs with much greater clarity.

This abstraction helps to strengthen the relationship between the limbs, as well as keeping the legs relating to each other dynamically and proportionately. Human anatomy S-curves are found all over the body, and the legs are no exception.

Here, the S-curve is found not only in large muscle rhythms, but also in the bones and their connections. The bones through the knee into the shin bone, and the smaller bones around the kneecap, hips and ankles exemplify this. This rhythm is universal throughout the body, but its particularly noticeable in the arm and leg muscles, so its good to bear that in mind while drawing these areas.

Rhythm keeps any form from getting too stiff in its design. One of these S-curves is the sartorius muscle, which is attached to the iliac crest and spirals down and around the inner wall of the leg. It acts as a major landmark, dividing muscle masses and surfaces like a fence between two gardens.

The iliotibial band does the same thing on the outside of the leg. These divisions are usually where the strongest shadow patterns are formed on the legs, regardless of how active the pose is. The kneecap itself is a small freefloating bone that hovers over the head of the femur and is attached to the leg by tendons coming from above and below the cap.

The most prominent of these tendons is the large rope-like cord that extends below the kneecap to the forward protuberance of the tibia, or shin bone. The kneecap or patella is shaped somewhat like a pentagon.

When the knee is bent, the larger shape of the leg mass between the femur and the shin bones echoes the shape of the patella with a five-sided form.

In this position, the side walls are more flat than angled. The lower leg is more triangular than cylindrical in its cross-section.

ImagineFX - How to Draw and Paint Anatomy Volume 2

The shin bones form a wedge, with the sharp edge facing forward and the wide side as the calf muscles. The lower half of the leg is about two thirds muscle mass, tapering to a block form at the ankles, with the inside of the ankle higher than the outside. The lower leg forms a bowling pin shape, similar to the forearm, and the foot fits.

Notice how the leg and the arm are similar to one another in their physical structure. The biggest differences between them are at the joints, but the majority of muscle masses resemble each other in their structure. The upper two thirds of each segment is muscle mass, the upper third usually contains the largest bulk of muscle and the lower third is mostly made up of bone and tendon.

The upper part of each segment is rounded like a cylinder, and the lower parts wrists and ankles terminate with a block form. The knee can be designed with three vertical planes and three horizontal planes, looking like the top of a diamond. Structuring the knee in this way makes it much easier to map the undulating furrows of the bones. Here you can see how the sartorius on the inside of the leg splits the barrel shape into two parts, while the iliotibial band on the outside of the leg divides the front from the back.

These two prominent separations are usually visible, so dont ignore them. Although the legs are independent limbs, the muscles of both share rhythms harmoniously. There are common rhythms that can be found easily, but look deeper the more the two legs can be related, the more harmonious and uid the entire pose feels.

The outside surface has the most intricate complexity to it, with a repetitious, organised pattern of piston-shaped muscles. Once the cylinders are placed and youve found their centres, divide them into planes. Beginning with simple surfaces is much easier than trying to start with the muscles, and the legs look more organised as a result. Stick to muscle groups rather than individual muscles. Only the muscles that are being used show more detail, expanding as their fibres bunch in neatly at the base of the pin.

When developing the legs, stick to the muscle groups rather than focusing in on individual muscles. Only the muscles that are being used should show more detail, expanding as their fibres bunch together.

If unused or not fully taut, the muscles blend into their respective groups or, if really relaxed, back into their biggest basic shape. One important point: Be sure to relate the two legs to each other throughout the early stages of the drawing, making sure that the action doesnt destroy the proportions and balance of the pose. If the legs look off from each other, then the entire pose feels off. Balance starts from the bottom up, so if you start the drawing with simple forms and sound placement, the rest practically takes care of itself.

Using the simple rules of form and function, you should soon be able to work yourself up a pretty ne pair of legs. Just dont forget to take proportion and muscle use into account. ImagineFX is the only magazine for fantasy and sci-fi digital artists. Each issue contains an eclectic mixture of in-depth workshops from the worlds best artists, plus galleries and interviews, community news and product reviews.

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Full details of the Direct Debit guarantee are available upon request. For full terms and conditions please visit http: Offer ends 30 April Theyre bony, theyre complex and, lets face it, theyre not the nicest things to look at. But anyone whos serious about figure drawing is going to have to tackle feet at.

Discover how to use form to create solid-looking feet and why you shouldnt use too much detail when you draw them. Even if you intend to only ever draw characters who have shoes on, your drawings will only be convincing if you have a good grasp of how to structure the feet inside the shoes. Storyboards, pin-ups, covers, character designs, movie posters, comic books all of these are instances when you might. This means that you have to put feet on the legs. As painful as this can be to master, it is a must-do, must-learn situation.

Here are some helpful hints and solutions to tackling these little beauties, helping you on your way to achieving the sweetest feet. Get a foothold: The typical foot is between 10 and 12 inches in length. Roughly speaking, thats about as long as the entire skull from top to chin. The foots width is a bit less than half the width of the head, or about the same width as the hands four fingers excluding the thumb.

You can readily see these measures for yourself with your own hand and foot.

To start a full-figure drawing or even a three-quarter drawing of a figure, it would be wise to begin with the ground plane to work out the correct perspective in the shot, relating the figure to the rest of the environment so it feels truly planted in the world. The perspective will help keep the foot in correct scale to how you see the action, to the characters head, and to the viewer, as well as keeping it at the correct skew if there is any from camera distortion.

I begin by drawing footprints on the floor or steps, or slope; wherever the foot is to be located. This can make it easier to draw the legs with the right foreshortened look to them and with the correct action to the pose. Boots and shoes usually cover the feet, but I recommend that you start with the foot without a cover over it, so theres a proper scale of foot size to the figure before any distortion created by the shoe design occurs. Feet are sometimes drawn oversized for weighting or stylistic reasons, but I would still draw the foot Be careful not to over-render the foot, or it can draw too much attention.

Begin with the ground plane to work out the correct perspective in the shot bare before covering it with a big shoe design, so that the foot relates back to the scale of the rest of the character. Toes are bulbous at the end, which means theyre rounded like a bubble, but squish flat when pressed against a surface. When this happens, the toe mass spreads out a bit further than the toes actual size, usually joining toes where they come together.

If this is the case, dont draw lines in between each toe: Use simple tones or light gradations to join the mass and separate the toes. Toes step downward like stairs from the metatarsal bone to the toes tip.

There are many little complex surfaces, from bone top to knuckles and nails, that can be rendered or shaded to give the feet more dimension and complexity. Defining the toes Be careful not to add too much detail to the toes if the foot is small in the illustration: It can also push the focus to the bottom of the picture in the same way as under-scaling the feet, unless you catch the mistake early enough.

The bottom of the foot has an arch on the inside and two separate pads that squish to whatever they press against, creating a straight line. The toes bend about a third of the way back behind the ball of the foot. When the toes spread, the biggest separation occurs between the big toe and the second toe.

The little toe is usually drawn as a bulbous shape. It typically floats a bit more off the As the gures leg lifts, the toes on the ground spread out one of the few times they can be drawn separated. The footprint is as long as the entire skull from top to bottom the same way the hand is the same length as the face from hairline to chin. Draw the foot with straight lines along the surface its pressed against, rather than drawing it rounded, the way you know it to be.

This will create a strongerlooking connection with the surface it is active with.

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Everything in space is related to perspective: Once the ground plane is established, stamp out the footprints on it and draw your figure to meet them, or draw up from them to complete the figure pose. This also applies to feet elevated from the ground plane. Determine where the figure is in. Drawing from the footprint to the torso sometimes helps solve tough foreshortening problems.

Relating your gures to footprints drawn along a ground plane will help maintain a sense of perspective and make characters more believable. Start with simple shapes to achieve a sense of mass and dimensionality, then create more bulbous forms. Start without boots or shoes to get a proper scale of foot size that relates to the rest of the character ground when the foot is arched up, but with the toes still making contact with the ground plane.

The big toe points in towards the other four toes, and these toes bend towards the big toe. Dont forget that the foot is a full shape with six sides, like a block, with corresponding shading planes. Draw through the form to generate a more solid-looking and dimensional form. When youve perfected your feet, youll want to add them to the rest of the character.

Nows the time to consider ankles and legs. See in my diagrams above how Ive drawn the right foot and started to attach it to the right leg. Ive shown the connection from a front perspective in these examples. The ankles connect the feet to the legs. For easier ankle drawing, it helps to think of them as a stirrup-like shape. The inside anklebone is more elevated than the outside one. Feet have typically been the bane of many artists.

Some illustrators hide them with smoke, push them into silhouettes and shadows or even crop the image to avoid drawing them. But when an artist can draw them correctly, how much character they add to the image!

The hands and feet can say just as much as a convincing facial expression. Because of their complexity and gesture or action, feet usually become a secondary or tertiary focus in a figure drawing. Its a good idea to tackle these difficult issues early on and ideally make it second nature to design them convincingly. You would be surprised how many people will comment on how well feet are drawn if they really are; its not every day that you find an artist with a real understanding of the ground they stand upon.

The ankles can be thought of as a stirrup shape to help relate them to one another. The inside anklebone maleolus is higher in elevation than the outside ankle bone. Overlap the toes when the foot is not drawn straight on. This will avoid the clump of bananas look, and help the foot look less cartoony.

To achieve a more solid dimensional form, bear in mind that the foot is a full shape with six sides. We continue our journey with the upper part of the arms and the way they connect to. Dont allow the complex interaction of muscles in this area to distract you from anatomys guiding principles. The place to start is at the skeletal structure. Understand the shape of the scapula and humerus, especially the edges of the scapula and the ends of the humerus.

Without knowing the bones and their. Keep in mind that the diagrams I have drawn are mostly fleshed over, so the points where the muscles attach are covered but the shapes are solid and directional, because of where the muscles attach to the bones. Learning the relationships between muscle and bone Drawing the shoulders to complement the action of the upper arm muscles Drawing this part of the body begins much like any other part.

First gesture in the pose, then accent the lines you feel good about using for the final pose before starting to define the body masses in more detail. When drawing the figure, a clear understanding not just of the muscles, but what the skeleton looks like beneath all the muscle masses is needed to draw muscles with any believable visual action to them.

Without this understanding and observation, the muscles can end up drawn as bubble shapes that are lifeless, weightless or competing against the action you want to depict.

Shoulder structure The shoulder floats over the ribcage, with only the clavicle at the sternum on the ribcage acting as an anchor for the entire arm.

This means that the arm has a lot of free motion over the ribcage. When drawing the arm connected to the body, you need to first find the correct action of the shoulder to avoid a stifflooking drawing. For example, if the arm is winding up to throw a ball, the. This drawing is all about the shoulders and the upper arms.

Note how the shape and form of the forward-pointing left arm is entirely different to the right. Think about how the muscles and bones are moving and interacting with the skin and the light. Here you can see three positions of the arm. The rst is forward, moving the attachment of the deltoid forward and stretching the shoulder muscles. The second is in a reference position, by the side of the ribcage. More of the back of the arm and shoulder show when the arm is relaxed in this position.

Meanwhile, for the third position, the shoulder is pitched back behind the body. The shoulder is now behind the ribcage, stretching the pectoralis muscles and serratus muscles. Dont memorise the muscle chart.

Memorise the muscle insertions and connections to the bones Here we see the shoulder from behind the ribcage. Line A of the rst ribcage represents the rhomboid and trapezius muscles, bunched up between the spine and the spine of the scapula. Line B represents the crease under the scapula that follows the serratus muscles.

Line C splits around halfway between the shoulder muscles perpendicularly. Here are the two approaches previously described to start the gure drawing: Both methods lead to very similar conclusions.

If the arm has released the ball in the throw, the shoulder will be more forward over the ribcage. If the hands are held high above the head, the shoulders are closer to the ears. Each set of muscles crosses over from one bone to another. For example, the shoulder starts in the torso, connects to the clavicle and the scapula, and.

The muscles of the upper arm originate both on the humerus and on the scapula, and terminate on the two forearm bones, known as the ulna and the radius. When drawing the arm connected to the body, we need to first find the correct action of the shoulder in order to avoid a stiff looking drawing hands and feet are a few places on the body where the muscles are referred to as intrinsic: Otherwise, muscles connect two or more different bone groups together.

The scapula floats over the serratus muscles, which we see as little bump muscles on the ribcage under each arm, or the superhero muscles. The shoulder muscles all start on the spine edge of the scapula, and cross over to the top or the upper third of the humerus. These four muscles help rotate the upper arm rotate out and in from our body when you hold both your arms out like a cross,.

These lines represent the rhythm lines, or the abstraction lines that ow between the muscles once the architecture has been designed. These lines help harmonise the muscle forms to create a seamless rhythmical movement of muscles, bones and ligaments.

Draw muscles with simple geometry to understand and memorise them, or to turn them into something that you can remember easily. Here are the four muscles inside the scapula. Each muscle is drawn individually to help you understand the shape, where it starts or where its connected and where it goes to. This is important information to remember, because all the lumps, bumps, dark spots and highlights you see on the back only show up when the arm is active.

Here, the arm is pulled behind the body, causing several creases to occur. These creases run perpendicular to the muscle striations of the muscle heads. The three creases here are along the base of the oblique; under the serratus muscles and through the lattisimus and the rhomboid; and under the scapulas base edge. The deltoid covers part of these muscles and wraps around the top of the arm. It functions as a swivel muscle, or the muscle that enables you to swing your arm round like a wheel.

Then we have the biceps and triceps. These muscles cross over to the forearm bones at the top third of the the humerus. The triceps extend or straighten out the arm; the biceps flex it or draw it into the body.

I urge caution in learning and drawing muscle distribution. Dont memorise a. The muscles should be drawn only when active, not charted and shaded like a muscle diagram muscle chart.

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Memorise the muscle insertions and connections to the bones, or where the muscles originate from and where they end on the skeleton. Learn their function and action and group them so you are not drawing every muscle. These muscles in particular should be drawn only when active, not charted and shaded like a muscle diagram: Body-builders create a Living Human Anatomy Chart with their bodies, and we should thank them to some degree but keep in mind that these muscles are developed to their limits, and are not the shapes we easily identify with.

The muscle charts you see in an anatomy book are based on medically ideal bodies. In reality, the size and scale of each muscle vary from person to person, based on their personal activity, diet and other factors. The anatomy books start us at an ideal point of reference. To accommodate all possible body types, you will have to veer away from these and use your eye and guiding principles instead. Art rules are a starting point, only meant to.

The left image shows the vertical striations over the muscles where the skin should fold line A over the shoulder blade, and line B where the rhomboid meets the shoulder blade. The right image shows the muscles from the scapula stretching with the action.

Here are a few points to help make studying easier. First, anatomy books have no skin. A quarter-inch of volume, if not more, needs to be added to the muscle mass. Think of it as a blanket resting on the muscles. This brings up the second point: When the arm is pulled behind the body, the skin creases vertically through the shoulder instead of following the muscles horizontally across the back.

The muscle fibres go one way; the skin creases perpendicular to them. This occurs everywhere on the body. Finally, more important than memorising the muscles is knowing when to draw them.

A chart shows you how the human machine works, but muscles are only clearly visible when active. At rest, the muscles blend into a more generic, simpler shape, similar to the visual metaphors youre using to decipher drawing the body. By examining not only the limb, but each and every part of the limb, you will have a better understanding of what to draw and how to make the actions look convincing. Studying the limbs one section at a time makes learning and memorising the information much easier to digest.

Anatomy is a large subject to tackle, but it. This version of the shoulders shows the arms from in front and below the gure. Note how the muscles of the deltoids, pectoralis, serratus and, eventually, the abs and obliques all ow seamlessly together in their striations, and radiate from the shoulders through to the pelvis on either side of the body, using the shoulder as the point of radiation.

The deltoid muscles are draped over the arms, seen both from in front and behind. Think of the muscle draped like a towel over the shoulder. Breaking each limb down into sections not only helps you take in the information quicker, but also helps to isolate the importance of each part of the body and the important individual characteristics related to those regions.

Practise til it hurts, then practise some more. Mileage is the key to artistic progress. This time well touch on the rest of the arm, from the elbow down to the wrist.

Before discussing the specific anatomy, however, I want to mention something about function.

Each segment of the. For example, the muscles of the shoulder function to lift the arm, the biceps and triceps operate the forearm, and the forearm muscles dictate the actions of the hand. This rule is important to remember when drawing: This is something we can think about another time, but its important to. The muscles as a group are all attached in roughly the same location, then spread across the wrist before terminating in the hand or at the ngertips.

The muscles on this cast are over-developed to emphasise their artistic shape and construction. The slightly rounder forms also lend themselves to more dynamic and uid rhythm lines. A function unique to the arm is the work of the rotator muscles, also known as the ridge or supinator muscles.

In opposition to this group of muscles is the pronator teres a muscle thats on the inside of the arm below the biceps. This group of muscles occupies the upper third of the forearm. The supinators originate about a third of the way down the. This arm was drawn from a photo of a bodybuilder, so the muscles are more visible in their construction than in the average person.

Weightlifters idealise their bodies, sculpting the muscles to perfection under the the skin, like walking anatomy charts. These muscles rotate the hand left and right, and flex or extend it. Now, contrary to what I see drawn a lot, the ridge muscles dont have a crease in them when the arm is bent. The crease you see is skin folding, not the muscle.

Think of the muscle as a cable or a piston neither of these objects fold over on themselves. Instead, they go slack. As a rule, skin folds perpendicular to muscle fibres, and this is whats taking place in this region.

The skin folds, the muscle stays the same shape just compressed a little bit more.

ImagineFX - How to Draw and Paint Anatomy ( CD) 2010

When the hand is pronated, the ridge muscles cross over from the outside to the inside edge of the arm. The ridge muscles attach just below the thumb so, as a rule of thumb sorry, couldnt help it , wherever the thumb is, the ridge muscles are pointing to it. The ridge muscles break up the even symmetry between the arms outside and inside edges. One way to remember where and how all these muscles work together is to think of the arm as a series of chain links.

Each link alternates. Here is an arm drawn from the underside, with the ulnar crest over-emphasised to show where it is and how it separates the exor and extensor muscle groups. This bone ridge is overemphasised to show how the bone travels from the elbow to the wrist. Contrary to what I see drawn a lot, the ridge muscles do not have a crease in them. The body shouldnt be drawn like a muscle chart, or it wont look convincing. Use the anatomy you learn only to fix problems in a drawing or to simplify complex posing.

Use your knowledge in moderation related to the action of the pose otherwise you should leave it out. For the arm to fold in on itself, or flex, the muscles have to be positioned to interlock with each other to prevent any conflict of space between all the mechanical parts within the arm mass.

Examples on page 45 show this further. Ridge muscles The ridge muscles share in the profile of the flexors and the extensors, blending into both sides in the upper third of the forearm. The inside of the arm seats the flexor group the set of muscles that flexes the hand toward the body. The brachioradialis the biggest muscle of the group overlaps onto the inside surface of the arm, the opposing mass to the flexor group and pronator teres. Both these sets of muscles funnel together.

The forearm is drawn foreshortened to show the relationship between the generic shape design and the signicant anatomy underneath. The anatomy design is missing the pronator muscle to show how the exors and extensors are separated by the bone structure. Study anatomy from every book you can nd, including muscle magazines and tness books.

Dont just copy the drawings: Then practise whenever you can, redraw the charts and label them from your head. Drawing the chart once or twice is not enough to memorise them. Drawing from memory helps you reect on how much has been absorbed. The extensor carpi muscles two more muscles belonging to the ridge group blend in with the extensors at the elbow and then across the top of the arm. On the other side of the arm, the extensors and flexors are separated by the ulna bone a split in the muscles known as the ulna crest.

The flexors originate at the elbow on the inside bump known as the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the bone that connects the arm to the shoulder also often known as the upper arm. The muscles cross over the two bones of the forearm the ulna and radius. As flexing, gripping, holding and so on are the primary functions of the hand, more muscles are attributed to assist in these actions flexors terminate at the fingertips, while a few terminate in the palm of the hand.

There are many layers of flexor muscles. Because the flexing of the hand for gripping, holding and so on is its primary functions, more muscles are assigned to assist these actions. The extensors originate from the outside bump of the arm the lateral epicondyle and cross over the two bones of the forearm, spreading out across the topside of the arm and terminating at the fingertips. These muscles are responsible for opening the hand and pulling back in a halt position the opposing functions of the flexor group, in other words.

The extensor group is the most active of the forearm muscles. If youre drawing. Figure 1 locates the arm in space and its action. Figure 1b then describes the simple cylinder forms eshed over the action lines. Figure 2 is a simple version of what the muscle shapes might look like as other shapes.

Figure 3 is the anatomically eshed out version of the arm. The next step not shown here would be to esh out the rendering and lose most of the anatomy chart to light and shade.

All of the forearm muscle tendons are protected as they pass over the wrist by the retinaculum. This might look like a wrist band, but it attaches separately to both the top and the bottom of the hand.

This keeps the tendons from popping out any old way from the arm. When drawing the arm, you should keep in mind that grouping the muscles. Drawing the figure one muscle at a time is painful and more than likely going to grow into its own unique shape one that doesnt necessarily resemble a real figure.

The visual symbols in the images here should help make some sense of what I mean by this. Study the muscles as one exercise,.

Drawing is not about parts: We study parts to identify them as a function, only to throw them back into the pile of tools called intuition. The fingers are not parallel with each other, although some actions may make it seem that way. Fingernails and knuckles are details: Its important to keep steps in their particular order while you absorb the process behind them: Once youre confident and welltrained in your craft, its up to you to find your own way of working, and you may well deviate from the academic or schooltaught way.

This is where you will find your independent style not in copying. Many artists fear drawing this part of the body, but apply the principles youve learned and learn the anatomy, and youll find the process much easier others, but in reassessing your working order. Learn it right, then break the rules and tools if you choose, and find your own voice. Hands can be convincingly drawn interacting with objects or surfaces. I cant stress enough that learning from life is the key to understanding everything youll ever need to know in art.

While art books might give a cool trick for getting a certain look or appearance, solving the problem dimensionally or from every angle will give so much more wisdom and insight. If you cant take an art class, use a mirror. You can use yourself to study from, and you dont have to pay a model fee. The hand actually has very few muscles in it: The thumb is a distinct shape rooted to the hand mass and should be drawn into the image after the bigger mass has been designed. The four main fingers all radiate toward a common point: Anatomy is important but more so to a doctor than to an artist.

The part of anatomy you should be first concerned with is the shape design, and how can you simplify your thinking and drawing down to the core essence of these shapes. Finger bones have a particular design to them. The fingers are more than 60 per cent visible bone shapes defining what we see, so understanding the finger bone or knuckle shapes is key in making a more convincing drawing.

The finger joints are spool-shaped, depressed slightly in the middles for the tendons of the extensor muscles of the forearm. The metacarpal knuckle the big one the finger is attached to is barrelshaped, not totally spherical, and the tendons that sit in the grooves of the spool shapes on our fingers sit on top of the barrel-shaped knuckle.

As research, look at Norman Rockwells hands in his paintings. He did it better than almost any other illustrator out there. The hand has a squishy side and a firm side. The squishy side the palm is where the majority of muscles of the hand are located.

The other visible soft spot is. These soft areas are the points on the hand that flex and change shape when active with an object or surface.

The hand then conforms to the shape of the object it holds. This last detail can really throw off the best of us at times unless you remind yourself of a few basic concepts of construction that you can fall back on.

Mechanics of anatomy Different hands can look like they are different shapes babies hands, for example, are chubbier than old peoples.

But we are built similarly, our hands included. The hand is blocky by nature: The hand is also circular, as it swivels and pivots in the wrist. When the fingers are pressed together, the hand looks like a spade. This is where you want to start drawing the hand. Imagining the hand as a soft, blocky form, something akin to a sponge in texture, helps you to remember what youre drawing is a physical object.

Next, add the arm rhythms and the ball shape for the palm of the hand, then attach the nger wires to the ball mass, These wires should represent the absolute middle prole contour, the middle of the nger mass. Now esh out the forms. This means adding dimension to the shapes by giving them planes. To locate the nger segments, nd the arcing lines: The arcs determine the relationship of each particular band of knuckles proximal, middle or distal from nger to nger.

Knuckles are knobby; either round or blocky. However, you may nd that stylising will change this blocky appearance.

Human anatomy If you cant remember the anatomy, remember the concepts: The fingers are roughly the same length as the hand mass. Remembering this is a good check-and-balance to make sure your drawings proportions are right, even when the fingers are folded and the hand is foreshortened. Proportions have a way of being understood even when obscured. The hand is attached to the arm, and the arm is an extension of the torso, so starting with an overall gesture of the pose ensures that the design you pick for the final hand is correct.

The hand position is relative to the rotation of the arm or its pronation or supination. The sketch hopefully solves the dilemma of how to start the design of the hand. I sometimes think of designing the hand in action by drawing the object first. Once I know where the object is,.

Interactive hands Another way of establishing the hands interaction with an object would be to draw the object, draw a hand print on the object so you know where to define the details, then build up off of the hand print all the.

Dont take too long: One method of drawing the hand interacting with an object is to draw the hand print on the object rst. Part 7 The hands Details sit better on the fingers when they are well designed dimensionally. The lines indicate movement and thumb position. The line that shows the connection with the object is the weld line. Press it firmly against the object, showing off the objects form more than the hand.

No matter how much you see a little space between the joints, dont make them important. Make the weld line show off the action. Draw details fingernails, knuckles, wrinkles last.

They sit better on the fingers when they are well designed dimensionally. Before this, render the surfaces: This is what it means to render a form; making a stronger visible shape, not adding details. The different-coloured lines here indicate the gesture of the hand and the character, showing how the object sits in relation to the character.The rst is angular, the second box-like, the third spherical.

Torso muscles The front of the body is made up of six major visible muscle groups: Figure Drawing for Fashion Design. Here we see that they both anchor on the scapula.

When everything is nished, most of the anatomy will not be visible D , but the bumps and little dark markings drawn in the pose will have a more visual believability and more accurate design to them.

The rst centre line helps to keep the features squared up on the face. You can email your work to fxpose imaginefx. Watercolor - Realistic Painting. I apologize for the cut-off part in this scan.

We study parts to identify them as a function, only to throw them back into the pile of tools called intuition.

ETHA from Iowa
I do love reading novels frantically. Feel free to read my other posts. I have a variety of hobbies, like tumbling.