FUNDAMENTOS DA BIOLOGIA MODERNA PDF
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Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, am. Looking for fundamentos da biologia moderna download pdf. Will be grateful for any help! Top. download PDF Biologia Volume Unico Sonia Lopes book you are Fundamentos da biologia moderna amabis e martho volume unico pdf. A obra ''Fundamentos da Biologia Moderna'' apresenta um panorama atualizado que inclui os principais debates e pesquisas científicas no campo de estudo.
Thus, the history of photosynthesis acquisition by eukaryotes is extremely complex, making very difficult to briefly define algae and to amabis biologia volume unico them from other organisms. Current data support the view that plastid acquisition is a rather rare event and, accordingly, a single primary endosymbiosis followed by a few very ancient secondary endosymbiosis probably account for all extant plastid diversity.
The Rhodophyta is one of three extant lineages which arose from the primary endosymbiosis and one of the main monophyletic groups within the eukaryotes. Traditionally the Rhodophyta has been divided in two subclasses, the paraphyletic Bangiophycidae and the monophyletic Florideophycidae.
Amabis biologia volume unico Bangiophycidae are the ancestral pool for the more morphologically complex taxa in the Florideophycidae and from which the chromist algae chloroplasts have originated through secondary endosymbiosis. Besides their evolutionary relevance, the Rhodophyta present great economic importance, especially as human feed and phycocolloid production. Even so, the knowledge about their genome and metabolism is very restricted.
DNA sequencing has significantly contributed to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of algae and their plastids, besides providing information on metabolic and physiological potentials of those organisms.
To gain further insights on the origin, phylogeny and evolution of the red algae we have used molecular techniques to better understand: The comparison of the complete plastid genome of Porphyra and Gracilaria reveals strong gene conservation, supporting a amabis biologia volume unico evolutionary relationship between the Florideophycidae and the Bangiales. The monophyly of plastids in chromist algae was not recovered in analyses of the protein data set, but was recovered when the relatively more slowly evolving components of the amabis biologia volume unico apparatus were used in the tree reconstructions.
Gracilaria maintains a surprisingly ancient gene content in its plastid genome and together with other Rhodophyta contain the most complete repertoire of plastid genes known in photosynthetic eukaryotes. The phylogenetic amabis biologia volume unico available now show a need to review the taxonomy of the Bangiophycidae, as well as of Porphyra which is polyphyletic.
The data also show that the actual assemblage of south Atlantic Porphyra spp. A group I intron used as population marker for P. The Gracilariaceae present three lineages, a basal one including Curdiea and Melanthalia, followed by two others: Gracilariopsis and Gracilariophila; and the lineages including Gracilaria species.
Dallas Lueilwitz Country: Three books characterized living beings by means of a general description of taxonomic groups that highlighted the attributes of each group Figure 2.
An emphasis on the description of morphological and anatomical features characterizing groups of plants and animals reinforced the search for lists of essential properties. When the properties listed are interconnected in the context of some paradigm, the list is no longer, as in the case of essentialist definitions, something like a medical syndrome, a collection of symptoms with no underlying cause. Rather, it is possible to explain the characteristic coexistence of that list of symptoms of life on the grounds of some set of causes.
To put it differently, when a definition of life is embedded in a biological paradigm, it is possible to find underlying causes to what previously seemed to be merely a syndrome Bedau In the textbooks where we found paradigmatic definitions, the paradigms could be implicit or explicitly stated.
The same is not true of Paulino , who presents a coherent set of interrelated properties, based on a view of the scope of the Biological Sciences as well as of the way the living world is organized, from the simplest to the most complex levels of organization, suggesting the existence of some theoretical justification for their choice; nonetheless, the paradigm at stake is not explicitly stated. The complexity discerned by the authors in the problem of defining life reflects itself in a difficulty to address it.
Only three books include a specific chapter or section about this issue Figure 2.
Because, at last, to say what are living beings is quite easy. It is enough to say that they are all beings in Nature which present a series of common characteristics Our translation. And, finally, we have in this passage a very clear example of an essentialist approach to a characterization of living beings.
Fundamentos Da Biologia Moderna
Here, it is worth observing that Soares also conceives heredity in connection with an essentialist view when he claims that the living beings transfer to their descendants a set of characteristics that define life and are not observed in inanimate bodies. Thus, when studying, we should be aware of the fact that the statements, generally speaking, refer to what is more frequent, to what happens in the majority of the cases or individuals.
This passage is found in a chapter about the definitions of Biology and life, and is explicit about the difficulties resulting from an essentialist view of definitions. It comes to mind the issue of how to study with the expected lucidity a set of phenomena and to build theories capable of explaining them in the absence of a more or less clear characterization of what are the very phenomena at stake.
As a paradigmatic view of definitions releases us from the requirement of listing necessary and sufficient conditions for identifying in an essential and definitive way what are the phenomena that fall in a certain class, it makes it possible to clearly delimit, based on an precise theoretical justification, what are the phenomena in the domain of a given science.
Alberts, B. Fundamentos da Biologia Celular, 3ªEd.
Although most books do not include a chapter or section on the concept of life, it is possible to draw some general ideas about this issue from the texts, through an analysis of how the authors think of biology, the making of science, the scope of the field, the organization of the contents, etc.
This view is reminiscent of one of the most influential ideas in Western thought, that of a scala naturae or Great Chain of Beings Lovejoy , which persists in the views about the evolutionary process emphasizing progress and perfectability. Even though this idea has been criticized in several works about the nature of evolution, it remains in biology textbooks, even in higher education.
When the living beings are thus presented in the textbooks, one can discern a tacit idea that the understanding of small entities, in the micro- levels, is fundamental to the understanding of larger entities, in the macro-levels. Nonetheless, a mere discussion of living beings in supposedly higher and higher levels of complexity cf.
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Salthe does not guarantee any understanding, say, of the intricate relationships between micro- and macro-level structures in multicellular organisms. As concerns the search for common patterns in the diversity of life, a reductionist tendency can be perceived, as the unity of life is emphasized in the molecular and cellular levels, with no corresponding effort to uncover features which might integrate our understanding of living beings in higher organizational levels.
One cannot lose from sight, however, that such a problem is also found in university biology textbooks. If the cell was formerly the unit of life, now we have the gene, DNA and even proteins. It is not that there would be any problem in searching for a unity in the diversity of life. Rather, this endeavor could foster an integration of biological knowledge, especially if supported by some paradigmatic understanding of the phenomenon of life.
The problem lies in the disproportionate emphasis on the micro-structure of biological systems, usually in an approach tending to isolate molecular and cellular structures from the organismic and environmental contexts. This approach can be verified in the fragmentary way the textbooks deal with the levels of complexity, making it difficult to understand, for instance, that the relations of living beings to each other and to their environment depend on their internal organization.
Another reductionist tendency is found in the way the phenomenon of life and the molecular or biochemical level are presented as closely related, while other views on life are relegated to a less important rank. It is a vast, modern and intrepid study in which we seek to understand the most intimate nature of each phenomenon that takes place inside a cell, in a fascinating investigation to explain each normal or abnormal process of the organism, justifying the nature of diseases, trying to correct or avoid them, and understanding life itself better.
It is clear that the biochemical nature of living beings is quite particular to each species or individual. This passage suggests that life will be better and better understood as our inquiry delves more and more into the micro- structural levels of living beings.
Nevertheless, when assuming such an approach, we should not underestimate the risks of losing from sight the need for an understanding not only of the molecular and cellular components of living systems, but also of the organizational principles by means of which the very systems which we classify as living can emerge from those components.
Such a view about diseases overlooks the focal level sensu Salthe where pathological processes themselves usually take place, involving not only cells and molecules, but, above all, tissues, organs, and organic systems. It conflates the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological process with the pathological phenomenon itself. We also found in the analyzed textbooks an informational view of life. It can be compared with the memory of a computer and stores thousands of instructions to make cellular proteins.
Given that these molecules rule almost all activities of the cell, the nucleus plays the role of an indirect controller of the cellular metabolism.
All the instructions to the functioning of the cell would be written, in code, in the DNA molecules. The genetic program metaphor, much criticized in the literature e. Among several misunderstandings and difficulties resulting from this metaphor, we have the problem that it emphasizes a purely informational conception of life. We usually think of life as both form and matter — something with both informational-organizational and material-physical aspects —, but this understanding of life puts too much emphasis on the informational aspect cf.
Emmeche The textbook sections about the origins of life contain important issues concerning life concepts. The treatment of this problem revolves around the possibilities of an origin by divine creation, or chemical evolution, or in some extraterrestrial place.
In these sections, the question of the evolution of processes that would make life possible is raised, e. Life would appear when an aggregate of molecules, endowed with the ability to perform ordered chemical reactions, extracting from the environment raw materials and energy, managed to maintain its organization and isolate itself from the environment.
Soares , for instance, states that the cell individuates itself through the differentiation of the intra- and extracellular media. We did not find, however, any book that addressed the circular, self-referential organization of living systems by employing the conceptual resources of this theory.
The textbooks call attention to the alleged borderline instances between living systems and inanimate matter, in particular, to viruses, understood as exceptions. Viruses and other molecular structures showing distinctive properties of both inanimate matter and living beings seem to be exceptional because they contradict our intuitions about the distinction between these two classes of entities.
As living beings, we have a deep conviction that, in principle, we do know what is life and no remarkable difficulty should appear when we try to distinguish between a living being and something inanimate, or between the living and the dead states of organisms.
This distinction becomes difficult, however, when we consider equivocal cases such as viruses, viroids, prions, or a biochemical soup of RNA fragments in a laboratory. To cast them aside as exceptions seems to be, at first, quite a natural and easy solution.
But a thoughtful analysis can suggest that this solution is not so adequate.
Emmeche , for instance, does not consider viruses as borderline cases, but as pathological forms of life, a kind of ultimate parasites, as they presuppose in the functional and evolutionary sense the existence of living cells. Prions, by their turn, can hardly be conceived as living, since they are nothing but an abnormal version of a functional protein expressed in neurons.
Due to a mistake in the post-translational modification of this protein, a non-functional version is produced, the prion protein.
The gene that codifies the prion protein is in the host itself, so that the prion lacks genetic material and, in fact, cannot do copies of itself in the same sense as typical living beings do.
The prion protein simply catalyzes the very chemical reaction that results in itself. Surely, it may exist, and maybe even necessarily exists, borderline instances between living beings and non-living matter. Nonetheless, what seems strange in the above solution is that it follows necessarily from the attempt to propose lists of necessary and sufficient conditions for life. Thus, the characterization of viruses and other structures as borderline cases may be a reflection more of the inadequacy of our defining procedures than of the nature of what we are trying to define.
It is also interesting to examine the difficulties that follow from the classification of viruses as living beings. This argument is not sufficient, however, for avoiding a violation of the Cell Theory by viruses, as this theory states that the cell is the basic structural unit of all living beings, and this does not hold in the case of viruses, no matter whether they are strictly dependent on cells or not.
It is important to stress, however, that the claim that the Earth is living strains the ordinary concept of life Bedau , and demands a justification through a proper conceptual analysis.
Finally, one finds in the analyzed textbooks a discussion about death, from the biological point of view, as the inevitable antithesis of life.
Or, to put it differently, a characterization of life from its counter- example, death. Laurence observes that one of the characteristics of living beings is death, and, then, casts doubt on the claim that an amoeba dies, since it divides itself indefinitely.
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What is the paradigm in which the textbook includes, implicitly or explicitly, the life definition if there is any? Fundamentos da biologia moderna amabis e martho volume unico pdf Even so, the knowledge about their genome and metabolism is very restricted.
The oxygenic photosynthesis amabis biologia volume unico developed early in the history of life by a group of prokaryotes, the cyanobacteria. Previous article. Such kind of cellular merging, called primary endosymbiosis, likely occurred only once.