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Freshwater algae: identification and use as bioindicators / Edward G. Bellinger and David C. Sigee . A Key to the More Frequently Occurring Freshwater Algae. Freshwater Algae: Identification and Use as Bioindicators book can be used by many who have an interest in freshwater phycology, including. Freshwater Algae: Identification, Enumeration and Use as Bioindicators Fully revised, it describes major bioindicator species in relation to.

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Biological indicators (bioindicators) may be defined Freshwater Algae: Identification and Use as Bioindicators Edward G. Bellinger and David C. Sigee. Freshwater blue green, purple, brown, or red. But images Algae: Identification and Use as BioIndicators. Wiley- used to support this idea (fig. a) illustrate gas. Freshwater Algae: Identification and Use as. Bioindicators. Provides a comprehensive guide to temperate freshwater algae, with additional information on key.

Penunjuk biologi seperti alga hanya sejak kebelakangan ini dimasukkan ke dalam penilaian kualiti air di beberapa kawasan di Malaysia. Penggunaan parameter alga untuk mengenal pasti pelbagai bentuk pendegradan air adalah perlu dan pelengkap kepada penunjuk alam sekitar yang lain.

Governmental agencies and the general public have become increasingly concerned about maintaining the quality of aquatic resources. Physical and chemical measurements provide quantitative data on the presence and levels of aquatic pollution and degradation, but these parameters do not reflect the extent of environmental stress reaching the living organisms or the subsequent effects of this stress.

Karr and Chu stated that our ability to protect biological resources depends on our ability to identify and predict the effects of human actions on biological systems; thus, the data provided by indicator organisms can be used to estimate the degree of environmental impact and its potential danger for other living organisms. Kovacs defined biological indicators as organisms or populations whose occurrence reflects the environmental conditions.

Biological monitoring is the specific application of biological response for the evaluation of environmental change for the purpose of using this information in quality control program. Algae are an ecologically important group in most aquatic ecosystems and have been an important component of biological monitoring programs.

Algae are ideally suited for water quality assessment because they have rapid reproduction rates and very short life cycles, making them valuable indicators of short-term impacts. Algal assemblages are typically species rich, and algal species exhibit wider distributions among ecosystems and geographical regions.

As primary producers, algae are most directly affected by physical and chemical factors.

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Algal assemblages are sensitive to some pollutants and they readily accumulate pollutants, and algal metabolism is also sensitive to the variation of environmental and natural disturbances.

Periphyton are one of the most important algae associated with substrates in aquatic habitats. Periphyton have been widely used as a tool for biologically monitoring water quality e. These organisms exhibit high diversity and are a major component in energy flow and nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems.

Many characteristics of periphyton community structure and function can be used to develop indicators of ecological conditions in the aquatic ecosystem Hill et al. Periphyton are sensitive to many environmental conditions, which can be detected by changes in species composition, cell density, ash free dry mass AFDM , chlorophyll, and enzyme activity e. Each of these characteristics may be used, singly or in aggregation, to assess conditions with respect to societal values, such as biological integrity and trophic condition.

The advantages that periphyton communities have over other organisms for monitoring purposes include the following: Diatoms have been used extensively in water quality monitoring Round Indices of water quality using diatoms gave the most precise data compared to chemical and zoological assessment Leclercq Aquatic populations are impacted by anthropogenic stress, resulting in a variety of alterations in the biological integrity of aquatic systems.

Algae can serve as an indicator of the degree of deterioration of water quality, and many algal indicators have been used to assess environmental status.

Kolkwitz and Marsson were the pioneers who classified algal species based on their tolerance to various kinds of pollution. They stated that the presence of certain species of algae could define various zones of degradation in a river.

Palmer published a composite rating of algal species that could be used to indicate clean and polluted waters. Patrick developed community indices and provided information that demonstrated that a healthy community is made up of numerous species in several groups of organisms, including algae. Patrick proposed a numerical approach to study water quality using diatom flora attached to glass slides as artificial substrates.

Dixit et al. Algae are also used in laboratory bioassays to study water quality, using media for culturing indicator species from the field or defined media to which varying degrees or concentrations of the pollutant are added Ho ; Guckert et al.

Table 1 summarises the algal attributes and indicators that were used in biological monitoring programs. To define the effects of various types of river degradation, it is important to use a variety of algal parameters Patrick Nutrient enrichment is one of the most common anthropogenic stresses in lakes, and limnologists have demonstrated the strong relationship between nutrient loading and phytoplankton biomass.

Algae can grow in abundance to the extent that they change the colour of water, which can significantly impair the recreational uses of aquatic systems. Blue-green algal toxins are contained within the living cells and will be released by cell decay. Eutrophication is a fundamental concern in the management of all water bodies and has been one of the focal points of contemporary research in lakes, leading to the development of several statistical models to predict the effects of nutrient loading on phytoplankton biomass.

Blue-green algal blooms are an environmental hazard that impairs the quality of water in lakes, reservoirs and rivers. Predictive models based on the microbial and ecological processes in freshwater bodies are useful for developing management responses aimed at reducing the negative consequences of algal blooms on the community.

Running waters dominate the Malaysian inland aquatic environments and support a rich diversity of flora and fauna Khoo et al. In Malaysia, development has inevitably resulted in adverse changes in the hydrology and ecology of wetland ecosystems. In Malaysia, biological aspects have only recently been included in the integrated water quality monitoring program study, and few algal studies have been conducted in relation to water pollution. Most of the information from water quality studies remains unpublished, and some of it is available through regional seminars or internal university press.

One of the earliest algal studies conducted in relation to water pollution was carried out by Ho , who studied periphyton production in the disturbed Renggam Stream, Selangor. Nather Khan , , conducted studies on the pollution status of the Linggi River Basin, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan using diatoms and reported that there was a marked variation in species between the unpolluted and polluted stations. Anton recorded a decrease in periphytic algal species in the downstream stations due to heavy siltation in the Langat River, Selangor.

Mansor and Lidun reported the presence of several species of filamentous algae and a high nutrient concentration in the Pulau Pinang rivers, which strongly indicated that some of them are polluted. Maznah and Mansor studied diatom diversity and its relation to river pollution and concluded that diversity values could be related to changes in water quality.

In a related study, Wan Maznah and Mansor reported the occurrence of clean, polluted and brackish diatom species collected from artificial substrates glass slides along the Pinang River Basin, Pulau Pinang and its tributaries Table 2.

Algal studies were also included in the river monitoring program by the Department of Environment DOE , to indicate the trend and status of the water quality of Malaysian river systems. Yeng reported that water pollution in the Ahning Reservoir, Kedah was associated with the appearance of certain species of phytoplankton, especially dinoflagellates. Yap used the Shannon index and the saprobic index of phytoplankton for water quality assessment of a river ecosystem and concluded that ecological knowledge can be used in the management of a water body.

In Malaysia, the determination of trophic state has been conducted primarily by measurements of physico-chemical parameters, primary productivity and chlorophyll- a concentration.

In a study conducted in the Muda and Pedu Reservoirs, Kedah Zulkifli , it was found that both reservoirs were slightly eutrophic based on the phytoplankton assemblages, with moderate levels of nitrogen, alkalinity and pH.

In another study conducted in the Mengkuang Reservoir, Pulau Pinang Makhlough , Carlson modified the trophic state index Carlson and showed that the reservoir was near to a mesotrophic state based on the chlorophyll- a and Secchi disk transparency data, but the Shannon and saprobic indices of phytoplankton indicated that the reservoir was slightly polluted class III and moderately polluted class II , respectively.

The study also recorded the presence of Anabaena , Microcystis , Oscillatoria , Nostoc , Dinobryon , Chroococcus , Staurastrum paradoxum and Mallomonas , which are indicators of toxicity and pollution in aquatic ecosystems, thereby showing that algological studies are important for water quality assessment and can provide an early warning sign of water degradation. The oldest approach for using algae to assess stream water quality is based on the indicator species concept Saprobien system.

The Saprobien system is widely used in municipal and wastewater monitoring Hill et al. A hierarchical framework is being used in the development of the periphyton indices of aquatic ecosystems. The framework involves the calculation of composite indices for biotic integrity, ecological sustainability, and trophic condition. The composite indices are calculated from the measured or derived first-order and second-order indices.

The first-order indices include species composition richness, diversity e. Second-order indices are calculated from periphyton characteristics, such as the autotrophic index Weber and community similarity, compared to reference sites. They found that the phytoplankton community exhibits some anthropogenic impact, but that these impacts do not indicate extreme stress.

The approach based on the algal indices of community structure diversity, evenness, richness, similarity , with the assumption that a pristine and healthy environment is typified by a greater diversity of organisms than found in degraded environments, has been used for monitoring rivers. To accurately estimate the water quality using species diversity, it is necessary to precisely define the species that compose the community and to have thorough knowledge of their autecology Archibald Multivariate analysis that is based on the correlation of organism assemblages especially diatoms with environmental data has been developed to assess water quality Sabater et al.

Researchers found that the methods that compare the distribution patterns of diatom communities in the rivers with physico-chemical parameters allow for the analysis of the relationship between biotic and abiotic variables. Non-taxonomic measures of algae e. Periphytic algae fatty-acid biomarkers revealed differences in the taxonomic composition of periphyton between reference and polluted sites Napolitano et al.

Estimates of community biomass based on the AFDW and chlorophyll a have been an integral part of ecological studies of aufwuchs concerning production as biomass accumulation overtime Ho , both as a productivity indicator or index of the photosynthetic potential and as an indicator of nutrient stress or community conditions Clark et al.

Freshwater Algae: Identification and Use as Bioindicators

The problems associated with blue-green and toxic algae have prompted long-term monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of freshwater ecosystems worldwide.

Data from these monitoring activities contain a wealth of information about the behaviour of these ecosystems that is rarely fully explored. There is a great variety of methods by which algae may be used as indicators of river water quality.

Although the biotic indices and non-taxonomic measurements of algae clearly reflect the conditions of water quality, it is important to note that such measurements should not be taken as an absolute measure of the river perturbations but may be considered as a helpful description of the algal community response to such disturbances that complements other environmental indicators.

Because no one group of organisms is always best suited for detecting and assessing the environmental disturbance associated with human activities, indicators derived from several groups of organisms should be included in water quality monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive signal of ecosystem change. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Trop Life Sci Res. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. For permission, please email: Abstract Algal communities possess many attributes as biological indicators of spatial and temporal environmental changes.

Abstract Komuniti alga mempunyai banyak sifat-sifat sebagai penunjuk biologi perubahan ruang dan masa alam sekitar. Algae as Bioindicators of Aquatic Ecosystem Health Aquatic populations are impacted by anthropogenic stress, resulting in a variety of alterations in the biological integrity of aquatic systems. Table 1: Open in a separate window.

Table 2: Clean water species Polluted water species Brackish water species Achnanthes minutissima Achnanthes exigua Cocconeis sp. Achnanthes oblongela Achnanthes exigua var. Approaches for Biomonitoring of Aquatic Ecosystems Based on Algae The oldest approach for using algae to assess stream water quality is based on the indicator species concept Saprobien system.

Concluding Remarks There is a great variety of methods by which algae may be used as indicators of river water quality. Use of diatoms for freshwater quality evaluation in Portugal. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Culture and Use of Algae. Iloilo; Water quality assessments of the Langat River, Selangor, using natural algal periphyton communities and laboratory bioassays of two Chlorella species.

Effect of phosphate and nitrate enrichments on reservoir phytoplankton. Furtado JI, editor. University of Malaya; Kuala Lumpur: Diversity in some South African diatom associations and its relation to water quality. Water Research. The use of periphyton in the monitoring of water quality.

Freshwater Algae: Identification, Enumeration and Use as Bioindicators, 2nd Edition

Biological monitoring in freshwaters: Proceedings of a seminar. Water and Soil Miscellaneous Publication. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Works and Development; Eutrophication of streams and rivers: Dissolved nutrient-chlorophyll relationships for benthic algae. Journal of North American Bethological Society. A simple, community level, ecotoxicological test system using samples of periphyton.

Effects of road runoff on biomass and metabolic activity of periphyton in experimental streams. Journal of Hazardous Materials. A trophic state index for lakes. Limnology and Oceanography. Water demand management for sustainable water resources management in Malaysia. Estimating, aufwuchs biomass. Weitzel RL, editor.

Methods and measurement of periphyton communities: American Society for Testing and Materials; Periphyton indicate effects of wastewater discharge in the near-coastal zone, Perth, Western Australia.

Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. Microdistributional patterns of freshwater diatoms in relation to their use as bioindicators.

Simola H, editor. Proceedings of the 10th Diatom-Symposium; Finland. August 28—September 2; A new approach to water quality estimation using diatoms. Nova Hedwigia Beiheft. Environmental management: Water quality monitoring — Biomonitoring, vol. Biomonitoring of Sungai Langat: A case study. Classification of Malaysian rivers. Volume 9: Pinang River. Draft final report. Project on water pollution: Universiti Sains Malaysia; Powerful indicators of environmental change.

Environmental Science and Technology. The use of biological materials. Chapman D, editor. Water quality assessments. Chapman and Hall; Nutrient-limited growth of Microcyctis aeruginosa and Phormidium tenue and competition under various N: P supply ratios and temperatures. Metal toxicity inferred from algal population density, heterotrophic substrate use, and fatty acid profile in a small stream.

Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Marsh phosphorous concentrations, phosphorous content and species composition in Everglades periphyton communities.

Periphyton response in an industrial receiving stream: Lipid-based physiological stress analysis and pattern recognition of microbial community structure. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

Periphytic algae as bioindicator of river pollution in Sungai Petani, Kedah. The usefulness of various numerical methods for assessing the specific effects of pollution on aquatic biota. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie and Hydrographie. Huntingdon, UK: Institute for Terrestrial Ecology; Use of periphyton assemblage data in an index of biotic integrity. Periphyton community responses to elevated metal concentrations in a Rocky Mountain stream.

Variations in physiological state corresponding to cellular phosphorous content in freshwater phytoplankton-correlations with adenylate energy change and photosynthetic activity. Periphyton production in a tropical lowland stream polluted by inorganic sediments and organic wastes.

On the chemical and algal growth potential of the surface water of the Muda river irrigation system, West Malaysia. Status of limnological research training in Malaysia. Gopal B, Wetzel RG, editors. Limnology in developing countries. New Delhi: International Scientific Publications; First published: Print ISBN: About this book This is the second edition of Freshwater Algae ; the popular guide to temperate freshwater algae.

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Print ISBN: Summary PDF Request permissions. Innsbruck, Austria: Bioindicator indicates indirect biological impacts of pollutants when physicochemical analysis cannot indicate phosphorus concentration effects on phytoplankton population.

Table 1. Napolitano et al.

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