EBOOK PRAGMATICS BY GEORGE YULE
This is an introduction to pragmatics, the study of how people make sense of each other linguistically. The author explains, and illustrates, basic. Book Search · Get print book. No eBook available Pragmatics. Front Cover. George Yule. Oxford University Press, - QR code for Pragmatics. “PRAGMATIC” By George Yule BOOK REVIEW This book review is arranged to fulfill the Mid-term task of Pragmatic Lecturer: Agus Wijayanto Ph.D Arranged by: .
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Published in thisseries: ppti.infoson: Linguistics George Yule: Pragmatics Series Editor ppti.infoson Pragmatics George Yule OXFORD UNIVERSITY. Critical Introduction to Phonetics · Speech Acts · stephen-c-levinson Pragmatics. pragmatics george yule | Get Read & Download Ebook. from a library! Pragmatics. [George Yule] This is an introduction to pragmatics, the study of how people make sense of each other linguistically. The author.
Reference is a social measure, where the speaker has assumption that word a mean of the speaker. It usually knows anaphora and the beginning expression knows Antecedent. There is pattern inversion of anaphora antecedent that sometimes founded at the beginning of story. The writer then concludes the chapter by stating that successful reference means that an intention was recognized, via inference, indicating a kind of shared knowledge and hence social connection.
Chapter 4. Presupposes and Entailment In this chapter, the wrioter explain the important to attention that presupposes and entailment is more far be centered concerning pragmatic in the past time than present time.
That have presupposes is speaker not sentence. That have entailment is sentence not speaker. Characteristic presupposes usually explain as constancy under denial is mean presupposes a pronouncement until constant constant true although that pronouncement sentence be denial. There are several type in presupposes that is: This is one of the version from the common concept that the meaning from the whole sentence is combination from the part of each that part sentence, but, a part meaning from the presupposition is unable become the meaning from some complex sentence, and this is called projection problem.
George regrets getting Mary pregnant. We know that now. There some example of entailment. The writer write explanation of the types and example of presupposition and entaimen, so the reader can know and understand the material or topic being discussed.
Chapter 5. Cooperation And Implication In this chapter, said that speaker and listener are involved in a conversation. Generally they cooperate with each others. The implication is the speaker thinks that all hamburgers are same. The point is the cooperation principle must give a good understanding to the speaker and the listener.
Cooperation principle can be divided by 4 subs: B improper: I do not know if that is such a good idea, his car runs fine. B proper: A man stops his vehicle in the middle of the road to briefly ask you for directions. Down the road, about 50 meters past the second left. Also, you should not stop your car in the middle of the road anymore. You will see it. So, you have the whole night ahead of you!
Sure, but we need to talk about how we are assigning the chores around here when I get back. I hope you brought the bread and the cheese. Ah, I brought the bread. After knowing the response of Dexter, Charlene automatically realized that Dexter only brought the bread. Such as: A says: The implication shows that the garden and the child are not his.
The information that is explained implies the value of scale. We will know more about the implication if the speaker explains more about the linguistics, for example: He says: It shows that speaker is not only has not completed the courses, but also he is sometimes interested in linguistics. Hey, coming to the wild party tonight? Not hidden.
It is free. Marry suggested black, but I choose white. It shows the implication. The implication is real and not hidden. Speaker and listener are involved in a conversation then they cooperate with each others, and the speaker has a purpose, and the type of maxims are essential in conversation.
Chapter 6. Speech Acts And Events Actions performed via utterances are generally called speech acts and, in English, are such as apology, complaint, compliment, invitation, promise, or request. Speaker and hearer are usually helped in this process by the circumstances surrounding the utterance. These circumstances, including other utterances, are called the speech event. In many ways, it is the nature of the speech event that determines the interpretation of an utterance as performing a particular speech art.
If the same utterance can be interpreted as two different kinds of speech act, it also means that there is more to the interpretation of a speech act that can be found in the utterance alone. There is first a locutionary act, which is the basic act of utterance, or producing a meaningful linguistic expression.
We form an utterance with some kind of function in mind. This is the second dimension, or the illocutionary act. The illocutionary act is performed via the communicative force of an utterance. We do not, of course simply create an utterance with a function without intending it to have an effect. This is the third dimension, the perlocutionary act.
Yule, George - Pragmatics
In every context among ordinary people, there are also preconditions on speech acts. There are general conditions on the participants, for example, that they can understand the language being used and that they are not play- acting or being nonsencial.
Them there are content conditions. For example, for both a promise and a warning, the content of the utterance must be about a future event.
Finally, there is the essential condition, which covers the fact that by the act of uttering a promise, In the other words, the utterance changes my state from non-obligation to obligation. The advantage of this type of analysis is that it makes clear just what elements are involved in the production and interpretation of utterances.
For example, uttering the explicit performative version of a command has a much more serious impact than uttering the implicit version. It is also difficult to know exactly what the performative verb or verbs might be for some utterances, it would be very strange to have an explicit version.
Declaration are those kind of speech acts that change the word via their utterance. When use it, the speaker change the world with words.
Representative is are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker belief as issues or not. Expressive are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speaker feels. In using an expressive, the speaker makes words fit the world of feeling.
Pragmatics - George Yule
Directives are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speakers use to get someone to do something. The speaker attempts to make the world fit the words via the hearer. Could you lend me a pen, please?
Commisive are those kinds of speech acts that state what the speakers use to commit themselves to some future action. They express what the speaker intends. Whenever there is an indirect relationship between a structure and function, we have an indirect speech art. Thus, a declarative used to make a statement is a direct speech act, but a declarative used to make a request is an indirect speech act. When it is used to make a statement, it is a direct speech art.
Indirect speech acts are generally associated with greater politeness in English than direct speech act. A speech event is an activity in which participants interact via language in some conventional way to arrive at some outcome.
The analysis of speech events is clearly way to study how more gets communicated than is said. Also the direct and indirect speech acts, before coming to the speech event. The writer concludes the chapter with the reference to the usefulness of speech act analysis in illustrating the kinds of things we can do with words and identifying some of the conventional utterance forms we use to perform specific actions.
Chapter 7. Within interaction, however, there is a more narrowly specified type of politeness at work. Face means the public self-image of a person. It refers to that emotional and social sense of selfs that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize.
Within their everyday social interactions, people generally behave as if their expectations concerning their public self-image, or their face wants, will be respected. This is called a face saving act. One way to see the relevance of the relationship between this politeness concepts and language use is to take a single speech event and map out the different interpretation associated with different possible expressions used within that event.
How about letting me use your pen? Everyone will be there. It will be fun. These general types of strategies are illustrated here via utterances which are actually central to the speech event for example, invitation. For example ; him: Are you busy? Oh, sorry. He also shows that negative politeness as a deference strategy can be used in informal situations, while positive politeness as a solidarity strategy can be used in formal situations.
In last part of this chapter, the writer talks about pre-sequences and divides it into three parts; pre-request, pre-invitation and pre- announcements. Chapter 8. The Structure of Conversation and Reference The word interaction can be applied to some social meeting with a various kinds.
The kinds of conversation is maybe look different depend on its different interaction context. They can say that a conversation is like a traffic current on the cross road, that involve alloy of kinds of movements. But, the analytical approaches that have been used most are based on the analogy.
When someone tries to take control of that situation we called it the taking over of turn, it is as a form of social action. The interaction designs of conversation are different from one social group to another.
Overlap is both speakers try to talk at the same time. You can see the first the example of conversation that shows miscorrelations. So-you want to be a teacher?
No-not really-well not if I can help it. The short interval - show a form of uncertainty, while the long one become silence. Two or the last line shows overlap with a conventional way. The individual hope that their role in the conversation will be very active. So that most of the speakers will relatively fast, almost without interval between the turn of speak.
These kinds of speaking style called with high involving style. It means that the speaker use slower way, hoping for long intervals between the turn of speak. These kinds of speaking style called high solidarity style, where no need interruption and force. As part of social groups we follow general expected patterns of behaviour.
It would be pragmatically odd to say: A bike has a chain. The chain was rusted. A bike aslo has tyres. The tyres were flat. Deictic expressions depend on the speaker and hearer sharing the same spatial context, in face-to face spoken interaction. In many languages deictic categories become markers of relative social status. Are you planning to be here this evening? Words in themselves do not refer anything.
People refer. The choice of one type of these expressions rather than another is based on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows. The co-text clearly limits our range of possible interpretations we might have for a word.
He then disappeared. Do NOT make it more informative than required.
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Do NOT say what you believe is false. Do NOT say that for which you lack adequate evidence. Be relevant. Be perspicuous: These maxims should be recognized as unstated assumptions we have in conversations However, there are certain expressions speakers use to mark that they may be in danger of NOT fully adhering to the principles.
In English they are commonly known as: If it is winter or summer, a cold or a hot day, etc. Aha mokofa WHAT?? We form an utterance with some kind of function in mind: The effect of an utterance The same locutionary act can represent different illocutionary forces: How can the speaker assume that the intended illocutionary force wil be recognized by the hearer?
Preparatory Conditions: Sincerity conditions: The essential Condition: A requirement that the utterance commits the speaker to the act performed.
The utterance changes my state from nonobligation to obligation. The speaker has to have a specific role, in a specific context, in order to perform a declaration appropiately.
Statements of fact, assertions, conclusions, descriptions, etc. They express psychological states and can be statements of pleasure, pain, likes, dislikes, joy, or sorrow.
They express what the speaker wants. They are: They can be positive or negative. Indirect relation between the structure and function. Example of indirect speech acts: We assume that participants in an interaction are generally aware of such cultural norms and principles of politeness.
It refers to that emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects the other sto recognize. Examples of social distance: Buckingham, can I talk to you for a second? Face Wants: Example Self and Other: You think that teh person next to you may provide the solution.When someone tries to take control of that situation we called it the taking over of turn, it is as a form of social action.
Harry Potter. It shows that speaker is not only has not completed the courses, but also he is sometimes interested in linguistics. Pragmatics - George Yule, Teresa Almeida Fernandes. And from A someone is more interest to listen that the woman has much money than her name. Mouton de Gruyter. Deixis and distance -- Reference and inference -- Presupposition and entailment -- Cooperation and implicature -- Speech acts and events -- Politeness and interaction -- Conversation and preference structure -- Discourse and culture.
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