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Bangla Novel-Durgeshnandini By Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Kapalkundala is Chattopadhyay's first major publication. The hero of this novel was Nabakumar. The heroine of this novel, named after the mendicant woman in Bhavabhuti's Malatimadhava, is modelled partly after Kalidasa 's Shakuntala and partly after Shakespeare 's Miranda. However, the partial similarities are only inferential analysis by critics, and Chattopadhyay's heroine may be completely his original.
He had chosen Dariapur in Contai Subdivision as the background of this famous novel. His next romance, Mrinalini , marks his first attempt to set his story against a larger historical context. This book marks the shift from Chattopadhyay's early career, in which he was strictly a writer of romances, to a later period in which he aimed to stimulate the intellect of the Bengali speaking people and bring about a cultural renaissance of Bengali literature.
Chattopadhyay started publishing a monthly literary magazine Bangadarshan in April , the first edition of which was filled almost entirely with his own work. The magazine carried serialised novels, stories, humorous sketches, historical and miscellaneous essays, informative articles, religious discourses, literary criticisms, and reviews. Vishabriksha The Poison Tree, is the first novel of Chattopadhyay that appeared serially in Bangodarshan.
Bangodarshan went out of circulation after four years. It was later revived by his brother, Sanjeeb Chandra Chattopadhyay. Chattopadhyay's next major novel was Chandrasekhar , which contains two largely unrelated parallel plots.
Although the scene is once shifted back to eighteenth century, the novel is not historical.
His next novel was Rajani , which features an autobiographical plot, with a blind girl in the title role. Autobiographical plots had been used in Wilkie Collins ' "A Woman in White", and a precedent for blind girl in a central role existed in Edward Bulwer-Lytton 's Nydia in "The Last Days of Pompeii", though the similarities of Rajani with these publications end there. It was a brilliant depiction of contemporary India and its lifestyle and corruption.
Linguistically, too, this popular print culture reflected considerable diversity, from the Sanskritized prose of upper-caste Hindu intellectuals to racy, abusive and colloquial speech, as well as what Comp.
Histor- ians have noted a remarkable increase in the quantity of drama and fiction produced from these presses after mid-century. In addition to older tales like Kamini Kumar, Jiban Tara and Bidya Sundar, the new forms of novel and historical romance were anticipated or accompanied by bat-tala fiction such as Hemlata-Ratikanta By the time of the Obscene Publications Act of , an emergent bhadralok gentry class had begun to voice its anxiety about the spread of bat-tala literature.
By contrast Pyarichand seems to be fully conscious of the demands of his chosen genre.
At the same time, it draws upon earlier satire directed at the new bourgeoisie, and the traditions of naksha and moral fable. Genre and representation The historical circumstances that give birth to Alal, however, are by no means the sole determinants of the new form, which draws upon a variety of narrative exemplars. Colonial readers represent a rapidly Comp.
But by mid-century the market is also flooded with novels and historical romances, not only Scott, Dickens and Disraeli, but also the sensational fiction of G.
Reynolds, widely translated into Bengali, which created a new rahasya mystery genre with the two series of his The Mysteries of London —8 and the four series of The Mysteries of the Court of London — For all that the form is derived from Western exemplars, the novel in Bengal is deeply indebted to indigenous narrative and to the affective and tonal registers of classical poetics.
Indeed, early novelists in several Indian languages are urged by British officials such as H.
Equally important is the attraction of a moral or allegorical substruc- ture, such as the cautionary tale embedded in Alal. Faced with the incompatibility of a mythological or legendary past and an evidence-based colonial historiography, nineteenth-century writers are driven either to reconstitute a national history from its fragments, or to imagine it anew. But the debt is by no means a simple one. It suggests the possibility not just of an alternative history, but of another way of thinking about history, as an instrument of imagina- tive release.
To discover the truth of historical objects and connections is the ironical privilege of the subaltern. Nowhere is the engagement with history more complex than in the fiction of Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay — Of his fourteen novels, seven take their materials from history; his third novel, Mrinalini , was labelled an aitihasik upanyas historical novel in the first two editions, though the adjective was removed in the third.
But in the preface to the greatly amplified fourth edition of Rajsimha ; serial- ized , published , almost at the end of his life, Bankimchan- dra describes it as his first historical novel aitihasik upanyas , explicitly dismissing the claims of earlier romances like Durgeshnandini, Chandra- shekhar ; serialized —4 and Sitaram ; serialized —6 , which focus on tragic conflicts of love and morality rather than national history.
Rajsimha seeks to recover a forgotten or obliterated Hindu past, one that must be reclaimed by labour and imagination from the preju- dices of Muslim historians and the partialities of Rajput witnesses. Yet Durgeshnandini left Comp.
Though Bankimchandra stated explicitly that it should not be read as a historical novel, Anandamath describes the activities of a patriotic and disciplined band of Hindu ascetics who call themselves santans children of the Mother Goddess identified with the motherland , and who have vowed to continue armed rebellion until she is reinstated in her glory and the sanatan dharma eternal faith has been established.
While the santans in the novel fight against the British, they are also bitterly opposed to Muslim rule; at the end of the novel, they are assured by a mystical Physician that the British are destined to govern India and ensure her prosperity.
Yet, in its mystical exaltation of the motherland and the power of its fantasy of courage and sacrifice, Anandamath, even if it is not a historical novel, is certainly the work in which Bankimchandra addresses history most directly, and the novel has gone on to exercise a historical function quite independent of its historicity.
This search for heroes, however, is not without its contradictions. Bishabriksha deals with an unhappy domestic triangle, a situation of deep psychological Comp.
Yet the depth and sympathy with which the characters, especially the women, are treated goes beyond conventional moral attitudes. Yet it is these very actions that drive the engine of plot, and produce his women characters as vivid, singular, intense and struggling figures in whom moral and ideological crises are most fully articulated.
This is true of the historical novels as well, several of which such as Chandrashekhar and Sitaram feature turbulent emotional relationships at the centre of their narratives, or adopt women as their heroines, as in Durgeshnandini, Mrinalini or Debi Choudhurani ; serialized But the only work comparable to Bishabriksha in its analysis of social and domestic realities and as controversial in its treatment of them is Krishnakanter Will ; serialized —7.
Here again a young widow, a liminal figure hungry for love and social acceptance, sets off a series of moral and emotional crises. Though the novel is set in the past, before the advent of British rule, history is not its focus: it is a work of exceptional imaginative intensity concentrated in the figure of its heroine, Kapalkundala, who represents the undomesticated freedom of a nature prakriti both merciful and terrifying.
He initiated first-person narra- tion in Indira ; expanded from Bangadarshan, and multiple narrators in Rajani ; Bangadarshan —5. While human figures, as Shrikumar Bandyopadhyay pointed out, are pushed to one side in the event-filled canvas of his historical novels, his domestic fiction focuses unerringly on the physical and emotional substance of everyday life. Most of all, his novels serve to articulate the ideological and moral crises as well as the hopes and aspirations of Indians at a critical moment in their history; and they do so with clarity, vigour and ironic intelligence.
If patriotism runs like a somewhat tangled thread through the historical fiction of the nineteenth century, the social fiction of the same period draws upon another element in the project of the nation — reform.
Despite his own conservatism, Bankimchandra had focused upon two of the most pressing issues confronting reformers: the condi- tion of widows and the practice of polygamy. Want to Read saving… Error rating book. Devdas by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay 3. In Blissful Hell by Humayun Ahmed 4. Parineeta by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay 3. Ghare Phera By Mahasweta Devi. Ninikumarir Bagh By Buddhadeb Guha.
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