ARCHITECTURAL GRAPHICS PDF
Architectural Graphics Sixth Edition Francis D.K. Ching JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. Cover design: C. Wallace Cover image: Courtesy of Francis D.K. Ching This . Ching () Architectural ppti.info Leonidas Koutsoumpos. L. Koutsoumpos. FOLJRJ H EI21IION, EBAf\JCI5 0 f'. C E4 lt\JG ARCHITECTURAL . This books (Architectural Graphics, Sixth Edition [PDF]) Made by Francis. Ching Pages: pages Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Language: English ISBN X ISBN Illustrated Cabinetmaking: How to Design and Construct Furniture That.
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Read Architectural Graphics PDF - by Francis D. K. Ching Wiley | The bestselling guide to architectural drawing, with new information. The bestselling guide to architectural drawing, with newinformation, examples, and resources Architectural Graphics is the classic bestsellingreference by one of . Architectural Graphics, 4th Edition; Francis DK. Ching 32 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Architectural Graphics, 4th Edition.
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Includes index. ISBN 1. Architectural drawing. Title NA C46 '.
The prime objective behind its original formation and subsequent revisions was to provide a clear. While retaining the clarity and visual approach of the earlier editions, this fourth edition of Architectural Graphics incorporates several significant changes.
The tactile, kinesthetic process of crafting lines on a sheet of paper with a pen or pencil is the most sensible medium for learning the graphic language of drawing.
Chapters 1 and 2. However, this text. Whether a drawing is executed by hand or developed with the aid of a computer. Another change is the division of the original lengthy chapter on architectural drawing conventions into four separate chapters.
Inorder to draw aperspective, we must know how many sets of parallel lines exist in what we see or envision and where each set will appear to converge. The following guidelines for the convergence of parallel lines is based solely on the relationship betweenthe observer's central axis of vision and t hesubject. H'r, retain their form but diminish in size according If perpendicular to the picture plane PP , a set of parallel lines will appear to converge onthe horizon line HL at the center of vision C.
If a set of parallel lines rises upward as it recedes. If it slopes downward as it recedes, its vanishing point lies below HL. In orthographic and oblique projection, t heprojectors remain parallel to each other. In linear perspective, however, the converging projectors or sightlines alter t heapparent size of aline or plane accordingto its distance from the picture plane.
As the same-size tiles recede, they appear smaller and flatter as t hey rise and approach the horizon. Other Pictorial Effects Perspective drawings also possess other pictorial characteristics found in multiview and para line drawing systems. In all drawing systems, the overlappingof shapes and forms is an essential visual cueto spatial depth.
As this viewpoint changes-as t heobserver moves up or down, to the left or right, forward or back-the extent and emphasis of what the observer sees also changes. In order to achieve the desired view in perspective, we should understand how to adjust the following variables. Height of the Stotion Point The height of the station point SP relative to anobject determines whether it is seen from above, below, or within its own height. A an object determines which faces of t he distinct advantage in using 3D CAD and modeling programs is that once the necessary object are visible and the degree to which data is entered for a three-dimensional construction, the software allows us to they are foreshortened in perspective.
Judgment of what aperspective image conveys, whether produced by hand or with the aid of the computer, remains the responsibility of itsauthor. The closer PP is to the station point SP , the smaller t he perspective image. The farther away PP is, the larger the image. Assuming all other variables remain constant, the perspective images are identical in all respects except size. Based on these three major sets of lines, there are three types of linear perspective: What distinguishes each type is simply the observer's angle of view relative to the subject.
The subject does not change, only our view of it, but the change of view affects how the sets of parallel lines appear to converge in linear perspective. The lines that are parallel with CAV. This is the one point referred to in one-point perspective. The two sets These are the two points referred to in two-point perspective.
Three-Point Perspective If we lift one corner of the cube off the ground plane GP , or if we tilt our central axis of vision CAV to look down or up at the cube, then all three sets of parallel lines will be oblique to the picture plane PP and will appear to converge at three different vanishing points.
These are the three points referred to in three-point perspective. Note that each type of perspective does not imply that there are only one, two, or three vanishing points in aperspective. The actual number of vanishing points will depend on our point of view and how many sets of parallel lines there are in the subject being viewed. For example, if we look at a simple gable-roofed form, we can see that there are potentially five z vanishing points, since we have one set of vertical lines, two sets of horizontal lines, and two sets of inclined lines.
The third principal axis is horizontal. This is the particular vanishing point referred to in one-point perspective. The one-point perspective system is particularly effective in depicting the interior of a spatial volume because the display of five bounding faces provides a clear sense of enclosure. For this reason, designers often use one-point perspectives to present experiential views of street scenes, formal gardens. We can also use the presence of t hecentral vanishing point to focus the viewer's attention and emphasize axial and symmetrical arrangements in space.
Along this side OA , we measure a length equal to the desired perspective depth. A 0 One-Point Perspective Grid h. Aperspective grid is aperspective view of athree-dimensional coordinate system.
The three-dimensional network of uniformly spaced points and lines enables usto correctly establish the form and dimensions of an interior or exterior space, as well to regulate the position and size of objects within the space. What do we I, wish to illustrate in the perspective view and why? PP need not be drawn at the same sca leas the plan setup. The position of C can be determined from the plan setup.
The unit of measu rement is typically one foot; we can, however, use sma ller or larger increments depending on the scale of the drawing and the amount of detail desired in the perspective view. Wedothe same along a vertical measuring line VML drawn through one of the measured points at one end of GL.
We call this vanishing point adiagonal point DP. Wheret his diagonal crosses the lines ont hefloor or ground planet hat converge at C. The result is aperspect ive grid of one-foot squares on the floor or groundplane GP.
Wecantransfer these depth measurements and est ablish a similar grid along one or both receding sidewalls, as well as onaceilingor overhead plane. Ahalf-distance point will cut off two- foot increment s indepth for every one-foot increment ' ' in widt h: With the same grid, we can also locate the positions and relative sizes of other elements within the space, such as furniture and lighting fixtures. Note that, particularly in interior views, properly cropped foreground elements can enhance the feeling that one is in a space rather than on the outside lookingin.
The center of vision C is closer to the lefthand wall so that the bending of the space to the right can be visualized. It therefore is able to illustrate both the constructional aspects of adesign as well as the quality of the spaces formed by the structure. Because thesection cut is assumed to be coincident with the picture plane PP of the perspective, it serves as a ready reference for making vertical and horizontal measurements for the perspective drawing. The height of HL and position of Cdetermine what is seen within the perspective view.
As arule of thumb, the distance from Cto DPL or DPR should be at least as great as the width or height of the building section, whichever is larger.
The principal vertical axis is parallel to PP, and all lines parallel to it remain vertical and parallel in the perspective drawing. The two principal horizontal axes, however, are oblique to PP All lines parallel to these axes therefore appear to converge to two vanishing points on the horizon line HL , oneset to the left and the ot her t othe right. These are the two points referred to intwo-point perspective.
Two-point perspective is probably the most widely used of the three types of linear perspective. Unlike one-point perspectives, two-point perspectives tend to be neither symmetrical nor static. Atwo-point perspective is par- ticularly effective in illustrat ing the three-dimensional form of objects in space ranging in scale from achair to the massing of abuilding.
The orientation of thetwo horizontal axes t oPP determines how much we will see of the two majar sets of vertical planes and the degree to which they are foreshortened in perspective. As with the construction of a one-point perspective, you should first establish the observer's point of view. Determine what you wish to illustrate. Look toward the most significant areas and try to visualize from your plan drawing what will be seenintheforeground, middleground, and background.
Review theperspective variables on pages It is usually convenient to have PP intersect a major vertical element of the space so that it can be used as a vertical ' Remember that the vanishing point for any set of parallel lines is that point at wh ich a line drawn from SP, parallel to the set, intersects PP.
The diagonal point in one-point perspective is one example of such ameasuring point. VPl- -. This intersection is MPR. For example, if you have a series of parallel diagonals in your design, establish their vanishing point as well. This scale need not be the same as t he scale of the plan setup.
The unit of measurement typically is one foot; baseline in perspect ive by drawing lines to MPR. Tra nsfer scalemeasurements onGL to t he right depending on the scale of the drawingand the amount baselineby drawing li nes to MPL. These are of detail desired in the perspective view. For example. It is important measurements along the major horizontal baselines - to see the perspective grid as a network of points in perspective.
When one-foot squares Thegrid of squares facilitates the plotting of become too small to draw accurately, use two-foot points in three-dimensional space, regulates the or four-foot squares instead. In each case, however, the height of the observer's station point SP above the ground plane GP has been selected to portray a specific point point of view, and the scale of the grid has been altered to suit the scale of the structure.
Note that the left vanishing point VPL lies within the drawing, enablingthree sides of the space to be shown and a greater sense of enclosure to be felt. Because VPL lies within the drawing, greater emphasis is placed on the right- hand portion of the space. If the left-hand side of the space is to be emphasized, use a reverse image of the grid. But there are techniques we can use to determine the relative heights, widths, and depths of objects in the pictorial space of a perspective drawing.
Measuring Height and Width In linear perspective, any line in the picture plane PP displays its true direction and true length at the sca le of the picture pla ne. We can therefore use any such line as a measuring line ML to scale dimensions ina perspective drawing. While a measuring line may have any orientation in the picture plane, it typically is vertica l or horizontal and used to measu re true heig hts or widths.
The ground line GL is one example of a horizontal measuring line. Digital Perspectives Perspective measurements are not a major issue in 3D-modeling programs because the software uses mathematical formulas to process the three-dimensional data we have already entered.
Various methods of perspective construction establish depth in different ways. Once we establish an initial depth judgment, however, we can make succeedingdepth judgments in proportion to thefirst. Subdividing Depth Measurements There are two methods for subdividing depth measurements in linear perspective: Method of Diagonals In any projection system, we can subdivide a rectangle into four equal parts by drawing two diagonals.
Lines drawn through this midpoint, parallel to the edges of t heplane, will subdivide the rectangle and its receding sides int o equal parts. We can repeat this procedure t osubdivide a rectangleinto any even number of parts. To subdivide a rectangle into an odd number of equal parts, or to subdivide its receding edges into a series of unequal segments, its forward edge must be parallel to the picture plane PP so that it can be used as a measuringline ML.
These mark off the desired spaces, which diminish asthey recede in perspective. Ifthe receding line is 1 1. From each of the scaled subdivisions, we draw lines that are parallel to BC and therefore converge at the same vanishing point.
These lines subdivide the receding line into the same proportional segments. Extending a Depth Measurement If the forward edge of arectangular plane is parallel to the picture plane PP , we can extend and duplicate its depth in perspective.
First, we establish the midpoint of the rear edge opposite the forward edge of the rectangle. Then we extend adiagonal from a forward corner through this midpoint to meet an extended side of the rectangle. The distance from the first to the second edge is identical to the distance from the second to the third edge, but the equa l spaces are foreshortened in perspective.
The reason for this is t hat, in the latter aperspective drawing. If perpendicular or oblique to PP, however, an inclined set of lines will appear to converge at a vanishing point above or below the horizon line HL. The easiest way to do this is to visualize the inclined line as being the hypotenuse of aright triangle. If we can draw the sides of the triangle in proper perspective, we can connect the end points to establish the inclined line.
An inclined set of parallel lines is not horizontal and t herefore will not converge on HL. Ifthe set rises upward as it recedes, its vanishing point will be above HL; if it falls as it recedes, it will appear to converge below HL. This intersection is the vanishingpoint VPi for the inclined line and all other lines parallel to it.
With VP as the center, we swingan arc from the!
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Mark this point A. We establish a vertical vanishing trace VT through VP. This is the vanishing trace for the vertical plane containing the inclined set of parallel lines. From point A, we draw a line at the true slope a of the inclined set. We first lay out the perspective view of the horizontal stair run on the floor plane. We arenot concerned yet with the individual treads of the sta irway. We then extend a vertica l plane tothe height of the stair landing or next floor level. Next we divide one side of this plane into the number of equal risers in the stair run.
We draw an inclined line from the topof the first riser to the top of the landing or upper floor level. This inclined line is subdivided by extending horizontal lines from the riser markings. We can use the vanishing points for inclined lines todraw other elements parallel to theinclined lines, such as stair stringers and railings.
This occurs most frequently when the plane of the circle is horizontal and at the height of the horizon line HL , or when the plane of the circle is vertical and aligned with the central axis of vision CAV. The larger the circle, the more subdivisions are necessary to ensure smoothness of the elliptical shape.
So while acirclein perspective appears to be an ellipse, we tend to see it in the mind's eye as a circle, and thus exaggerate the length of its minor axis. Checking the relationship between the major and minor axes of elliptical shapes helps to ensure accuracy of the foreshortening of circles in perspective. A reflecting surface presents an inverted or mirror image of the object being reflected. For example, if an object is resting directly on areflecting surface.
Thus, in a perspective view of the reflection, the reflected image follows the same perspect ive system of lines already established for the original image. Sightlines reflect off a mirrored surface at an angle equal to the angle of incidence. Each reflection therefore doubles t he apparent dimension of the space in a direction perpendicular to the mirrored surface.
Anything in front of or above a reflecting surface appears at the same distance in back of or below the reflecting surface in adirection perpendicular to the surface. Therefore, the major sets of parallel lines in the reflection appear to converge to the same vanishing points as do the corresponding sets of lines in the subject.
The plane of the reflecting surface should appear to be halfway between the subject and its refiected image. For example, the waterline establishes the horizontal reflecting plane. Point olies in t his pla ne.
I Refiections oflines perpendicular to the refiecting surface extend the original lines. While lines are essential to the task of delineating contour and shape, there are also visual qualities of light, texture, mass, and space that cannot befully described by line alone.
In order to model the surfaces of forms and convey asense of light, we rely on the rendering of tonal values. Our visual system processes these patterns of light and dark. If seeing patterns of light and dark is essential to our perception of objects. Through the interplay of tonal values we are able to: Thevisual effect of each technique varies according to the nature of t he stroke, the medium.
Regardless of the shading technique we use, we must always be fully aware of the tonal value being depicted. For example, atonal valuesuperimposed upon a darker tone will appear lighter than the same value set against a lighter tone. Covering the paper surface entirely can cause adrawing to lose depth and vitality Digital Tonal Values Paint and drawing programs usually permit colors and tonal values to be selected from amenu or palette.
Image-processing software further allows the creation and application of visual textures. The strokes may be long or short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either apen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper. When spaced close enough together, the lines lose their individuality and merge to form a tonal value. We therefore rely primarily on the spacing and density of lines to control the lightness or darkness of a value. When extending atonal value over a large area, avoid the effect of banding by softening the edges and overlapping each set of strokes in a random manner.
Maintaining the diagonal direction of the strokes in t his manner avoids confusion with the underlying drawing and unifies the various tonal areas of a drawing composition. Remember that direction alone, however, has no impact on tonal value.
With texture and contour, the series of lines can also convey material characteristics, such as the grain of wood, the marbling of stone, or the weave of fabric. Be careful not to use too dense a grade of lead or press so hard that the pencil point embosses the drawing surface. You can only control the spacing and density of the hatching. As with hatching, the strokes may be be longor short, mechanically ruled or drawn freehand, and executed with either a pen or a pencil on smooth or rough paper.
The simplest crosshatching consists of two intersecting sets of parallel lines. Ii pattern can also produce a stiff, sterile, and I. While simple hatching creates the lighter range of values in a drawing, crosshatching renderst he darker range. The freehand natureof scribbling gives us great flexibility in describing tonal values and textures.
We can vary the shape.
The strokes may be broken or continuous, relatively ,: By interweaving the strokes. Applying stippling is a slow and time-consuming procedure that requires the utmost patience and care in controlling the size and spacing of the dots. The best results occur when using a fine-tipped ink pen on asmooth drawing surface. We continue to add stippling in a methodical manner.
If the scale of the dots is too large for the toned area, too coa rse a texture will result. In between exists an intermediate range of grays. A familiar form of this range is represented by a valueor gray scale having ten equal gradations from white to black. It is worthwhile to practice producing both astepped seriesand agraduated scale of tonal values using a variety of media andtechniques. It can also describe the cha racteristic surface qualities of familiar materials, as the hewn appearance of stone, the grain of wood, and the weave of afabric.
This is tactile texture that can be felt by touch. Our senses of sight and touch are closely intertwined. As our eyes read the visua l texture of a surface, we often respond to its apparent tactile quality without actually touching it. We J base these physical reactions on the textural qualities of similar materials we have experienced in the past. In most cases, tonal va lue is more critical than texture to the representation of light, shade, and the way they model forms in space.
Shading with tona l values extends a simple drawing of contours into the three-dimensional realm offorms arranged in space. We must therefore be careful how we define the nature of the edge or boundary wherever two shapes of contrasting values meet. The skillful manipulation of tona l edges is critical to defining the nature and solidity of a surface or object.
We define hard edges with an abrupt and incisive shift in tonal value. Soft edges describe indistinct or vague background shapes, gently curving surfaces and rounded forms, and areas of low contrast. We create soft edges with a gradual change intonal valueor diffusetonal contrast. Digital Modeling It is relat ively easy to create three-dimensional digital models, and to apply complex algorit hms for lighting and applying textures and materials to the surfaces of the models.
At times, the photorea listic capabilities of graphics software can be distracting, leaving nothingto the viewer's imagination. Light is the radiant energy that illuminates our world The light-and-dark patterns we see emanate and enables us to see three-dimensional forms in space. We do not actually from the interaction of light with the objects see light but rather the effects of light. The way light falls on and is and surfaces around us.
Within these patterns reflected from a surface creates areas of light, shade, and shadow, which of light and dark shapes, we can recognize the give us perceptual clues to the surface's three-dimensional qualities.
Shadows are t hedark values cast by an object or part of an object upon a surface that would otherwise be illuminated by the light source.
Areas of reflected light-light cast back froma nearby surface-lig htenthe tonal value of a portion of a shaded surface or a shadow.
Architectural Graphics, 6th Edition
Digital Lighting Modeling and rendering software enable us to specify the orientation of the sun in order to study the solar responsiveness of a design. We can also designate the number and type of light sources to simulate the lighting within aspace. These simulations, however, are often only approximations of the effects of point sources and their energy distribution profiles.
Judgment of the end result, therefore, whether produced by hand or the computer, remains the responsibility of the illustrator. These two drawings of t hePiazza San Marco in Venice illustrate how the tonal contrast can be achieved either by rendering the building as a dark figure against alight background or by reversing the figure-ground relationship and rendering the tonal values of the site.
These values can effectively isolate I I and providea base for elements that are situated I I above thefloor plane. The lower t he floor plane, the darker its value. Be sure, however, that there is sufficient contrast to emphasize the dominance of the cut elements. If necessary,, outline the cut elements with a heavy line weight. The most important distinctions to establish are between the cut through the ground plane in front of the building elevation and the building itself, and between the building elevation and its background.
Tonal values are t hereforeused primarily to articulatethe orthogonal relationship between horizontal and vertical planes. Toning the horizontal planes not only establishes avisual base for the drawing but also aids in defining the shape and orientation of the vertical planes. Although improvements continue to be made, the rendering of atmospheric and texture perspective remains problematic in many graphics programs. Image- processing software, however.
The depiction of light, shade, and shadow can.. The sun is so large and distant a source that its light rays areconsidered to be parallel. Shade refersto the relatively dark area on those parts of a solid that are tangent to or turned away from a theoretical light source. The corollary t o this is that any point that is not in light cannot cast a shadow because light does not strike it. Ashadow can never be cast on a surface in shade, nor can it exist within another shadow.
Digital Shade and Shadows Modeling software typically includes the ability to specify the location and orientation of the light source and to cast shade and shadows automatically. This convention produces shadows of widt hor depthequal to the width or depth of the projections that cast t he shadows. In the view showingthe edge view of the receiving f'!.. The intersection of this transferred line withthe. A ray in the adjacent view marks the shadow of the point.
The shadow of a stra ight lineon a flat surface of its shadow plane with the surface receiving the ' isthe linethat connects the shadows of its shadow. If the line intersects the surface, plane establishes the direction of the light rays, ' '. The shape of the shadow is elliptical since t hesection of acylinder cut by any planeoblique to its axis is an ellipse.
The most convenient method of determining the shadow of acircle isto determine the shadow of thesquare or octagon circumscribing the givencircle, and then to inscribe within it the elliptical shadow of the circle. It is usually best to beginby determining t he shadows of significant points in t heform, such as the end point s of straight lines and the t angent points of curves. The shadow of t heline will appear to be straight regardless of theshapeof the surface receiving theshadow.
VAT lO t. Rather, they merely indicate the relative heights of the parts of a building above the ground plane. However, they may be used to emphasize thecut elements and the relative heights of objects withinthe space. However, they can be used effectively to distinguish between horizontal and vertical elements, and the th ree- dimensional nature of their forms. To construct shade and shadows in a para line drawing, it is necessary to assume a source and direction of light.
Deciding on a direction of light is a problem in composition as well as communication. It is important to remember that cast shadows should clarify rather than confuse the nature of forms and their spatial relationships. There are occasions when it may be desirable to determine the actual cond itions of light, shade, and shadow. Within t he shadow or area in shade, t here is usually some variation in value due to the reflect ed light from adjacent lit surfaces.
This intersectionrepresents thesourceof the light rays, and is aboveHL when the light source is infront of the observer and below HL when behind t heobserver. The shadow and the bearing direction I therefore share the same vanishingpoint. Both the casting edgeand its shadow t herefore share the samevanishing point. To determine how a shadow is cast by a vertical element onto a sloping surface, first extend t he vertical element down to t hebase of the sloping surface. In each of the major drawing systems, we do this by extendingthe ground line and plane to include adjacent structures and site features.
In addition to the physical context, we should indicate the scale and intended use of spaces by including human figures and furnishings. We can also attempt to describe the ambience of a place by depicting the quality of light, t hecolors and textures of materials, the scale and proportion of the space, or the cumulative effect of details.
Therefore, in the drawing of architectural and urban spaces, we include people to: Important aspects to consider inthe drawing of humanfigures are: We can therefore simply scalethe normal height of people in elevations and section drawings. Since the view is three-dimensional, however, the figures should have some degree of roundness to indicate t heir volume. In perspective drawings, it is generally easiest to begin drawing people by locating whereeach figureis standing.
Figures above or below the level of t heobserver should first be sized as if on the same level, and then shifted up or down as required.
The principles of linear perspective can be used to shift t he figure right or left, up or down, or into the depth of the perspective. We therefore need to draw human figures in proper size and proportion. Instead, figures should be given a sense of volume, especially in paraline and perspective views. Thentheestablished I Their placement should remind us that there should be places on which to sit, lean, rest our elbow or foot, or to simply touch.
Digital libraries Many CAD and modeling programs include ready-made libraries or templates of t hese contextual elements. These can be easily copied, resized, and placed directly into drawings. IJj buses, even bicycles-to indicate roadways and parking areas in exterior scenes. Drawing vehicles in conjunct ion with people helps establish t heir scale.
These include: With these landscaping elements, we can: Different types of branch structures are illustrated below. The amount of detail rendered should be consistent with the scale and style of t hedrawing.
Draw these outlines freehand to give the foliage atextural quality.
It is therefore necessary to differentiate between deciduous trees. As always, the type of trees selected should be appropriate to the geographic location of the architecture. The outline of foliage can be suggested with dotted or lightly drawn freehand lines.
Foregroundelement s typically possess dark, saturated colorsand sharply defined contrast s in value. As elements move farther away, their colors become lighter and more subdued, and their tonal contrasts more diffuse.
In thebackground, we see mainly shapes of grayed tones and muted hues. This cansometimes be accomplished simply withan articulated profile line. Trees and landscaping are shownmerely as shapes of tonal value and texture. These drawings describe a design proposal in a graphic manner intended to persuade an audience of it s value. The audience may be a client. Whether produced to assist the client's imagination or to obtain acommission, either privately or througha competition, presentation drawings should communicate as clearly and accurately as possible thethree-dimensional qualities of a design.
Although the drawings that comprise a presentation may be excellent two-dimensional graphics worthy of an exhibition, they are merely t ools for communicating adesign idea, never ends in themselves.
An effective presentation, however, also possess important collective characteristics. Point of View Be clear about design intent. Apresentation should communicate the central idea or concept of adesign scheme.
Graphic diagrams and text are effective means of articulating and clarifying the essential aspects of a design scheme, especially when they are visually related to the more common types of design drawing.
An effective presentation employs economy of means, utilizing only what is necessary to communicate an idea.
If any of the graphic elements of a presentation become distracting and ends in themselves, the intent and purpose of the presentation are obscured. Clarity Be articulate. At a minimum, presentation drawings should explain a design clearly and in enough detail so that viewers unfamiliar with it will be able to understand the design proposal.
Eliminate unintended distractions. Too often, we are blind to these glitches, because we know what we want to communicate and therefore cannot read our own workin an objective manner.
Accuracy Avoid presenting distorted or incorrect information. Presentation drawings should accurately simulate a possible reality and the consequences of future actions so that the decisions made based on the information presented are sound and reasonable.
Unity, not to be confused with uniformity, ; I 1: Continuity ;.. Each segment of apresentation should relateto what precedes it and what follows, reinforcing all the other segments of the presentation. The principles of unity and continuity are mutually self-supporting; one cannot be achieved without the other.
The factors that produce one invariably reinforce the other. At the same time, however, we can bring into focus the central idea of adesign through the placement and pacing of the major and supporting elements of the presentation. Only through a coordinated presentation of related drawings can the three-dimensional form and character of a design be communicated. To explain and clarify aspect s that are beyond the capability of the drawings, we resort to diagrams, graphic symbols, titles, and text.
In any design presentation, therefore, we should carefully plan the sequence and arrangement of all of the following elements: U-4 considered in composing a visually balanced presentation: Slide and computerized presentations involve a sequence in time. In either case, the subject matter presented should progress in sequence from small-scale to large-scale graphic information, and from the general or contextual view to the specific.
Whenever possible, orient plan drawings with north up or upward on the sheet. When each drawing successively builds on the preced ing one, work from the bottomup or proceed from left to right. Typical examples include a series of floor plans for a multistory building or a sequence of building elevations.
The spacing and alignment of these individual drawings, as well as similarity of shape and treatment. Do not fill up white space unless absolutely necessary. Avoid using lines, however, when spacing or alignment can achieve the same purpose. Be aware, however, t hat using t oo many frames can establish ambiguous figure-ground relationships.
A darker background for an elevation drawing, for example, can merge with a section drawing. The foreground for a perspective can become t hefield for aplan view of t hebuilding. To be easily recognizable and readable, keep them simple and clean-free of extraneous detail and stylistic flourishes. In enhancing the clarity and readability of apresentation, these devices also become important elements in the overall composition of a drawingor presentation.
Theimpact of graphic symbols and letteringdepends on their size, visual weight, and placement. Size The size of a graphic symbol should be in proportion to the scale of the drawing and readable from the anticipated viewingdistance. Visual Weight The size and tonal value of a graphic symbol determines its visual weight.
If alarge symbol or typeface is required for readability but a low value is mandatory for a balanced D composition, then use anoutline symbol or letter style. Placement Place graphic symbolsas close as possible to the drawing to which they refer. Whenever possible, use spacing and alignment instead of boxes or frames to form visual sets of information. You should therefore spend time on the appropriate selection and use of fonts rather than attempt to design new ones. Avoid mixing serif and non serif typefaces ina single tit le or body of text.
Keep in mind that we may read different portions of a presentation-project overviews, diagrams. The maximum size for a hand lettering is 3f16 of an inch. Beyond this size, the strokes require a width beyond what a pen or pencil is capable of producing. The visual movement of slanted lettering can be distracting in a rectilinear drawing scheme.
Drawing Titles Arrange titles and graphic symbols into visual sets that identify and explain the contents of adrawing. By convention. In this position. Use symmetrical layouts with symmetrical drawings and designs. The space between blocks of text should be equal to or greater than the height of two lines of text.
Project Title The project title and associated informationshould relate to t heoverall sheet or board, not to any single drawing withi nthe field of thepanel. This information shou ld be inthe same relative position on each panel. However, because what we see on a monit or does not necessarily match theoutput fromaprinter or plotter, a trial layout should always be printed or plotted to ensure that the results are satisfactory.
Digit al technology has also introduced t heelements of time and motion into architectural presentations. Present ation software enables us to plan and present slide shows of st aticgraphic images as well as animations. Whereas we can roam and ponder a series of drawings displayed ona wall of a room, our viewing of a computer- based presentation is often controlled by the presenter.
Doing so can create the impression of a figure on a background that itself has a background. Attention would be diverted from the figure, where it belongs, to theframe around it. Theunderlying sense of order created by the grid allows a great variety of information to be presented in a uniformma nner. The tactile, kinesthetic nature of freehand drawing in direct response to sensory phenomena sharpens our awareness in the present and enables us to collect visual memories of the past. Freehand drawing also enables us to initiate and freely work through ideas of a possiblefuture that we imagine inthe mind's eye.
During the design process itself, the freehand drawing of diagrams allows us to further explorethese ideas and develop them into workable concepts.
The process for drawing from observation is to look, respond, and record.
You may want to experiment with the feel and capabilities of other media, suchas charcoal pencils and markers. Try to determine the limits of expression of which each is capable and how its characteristics affect the nature of a drawing.
For example, you should find that a fine-tipped pen or pencil encourages you to focus on minute details. Because it takes innumerable fine lines to cover a given area, many line drawings end up smaller than intended or.
On the other hand, sketching with a broad-tipped pencil or markerfosters abroader view and the omission of details. Freehand sketches may consist purely of lines or be acombination of lines and tones. The line, however, remains the single most essential drawing element, one that is capable of a wide range of expression. A line can portray hard as well as soft materials; it can be light or heavy, limp or taut, bold or tentative. This fosters afeeling of "' While we normally perceive spatial voids as having no substance, they share the same edges as the objects they separate or envelop.
The positive shapes offigures and the shapeless spaces of backgrounds share the same boundaries and combine to form an inseparable whole-a unity of opposites. In drawing, also, negative shapes share the contour lines that define the edges of positive shapes. The format and composition of adrawing consists of positive and negative shapes that fit together like the interlocking pieces of ajigsaw puzzle.
Since negative shapes do not always have the easily recognizable qualities of positive shapes, they can be seen only if we make the effort. Unlike contour drawing, in which we proceed from part topart, analytical drawing proceeds from the wholeto the subordinate parts and finally the det ails. Subordinating parts and details to the structure of the overall formprevents apiecemeal approachthat can resu lt infaulty proportional relat ionships and a lack of unity. Draw these lines in an exploratory manner to block out and establish a transparent volumetric frameworkfor aform or composition.
Do not erase any previously drawn lines.
If necessary, restate aline- correcting basic shapes and checking the relative proportions between the parts. They can cut through forms and extend through space as they link, organize, and give measure to the various parts of an object or composition. The resulting transparency also conveys a convincing sense of volume occupied by the form. Working in this way prevents the appearance of flatness that can result from concentrating too much on surface rather than volume.
Avoid scratching in lines with short, feeble strokes. Instead, draw lines as smoothly and continuously as possible. Only as you approach the end of the stroke should you bring the wrist and fingers into motion to control where the line ends.
Documents Similar To Architectural Graphics
If we are able to break down what we see into regular geometric volumes or a geometric arrangement of parts. We can reorganize the forms in an additive manner or transform them in a subtractive manner. The resulting structure can then serve as a framework for the development and refinement of the forms and intervening spaces. Mastery of drawing these simple forms is a prerequisite for drawing a variety of derivative compositions.
A number of cubic volu mes or derivative forms can link, extend. Inthis subtractive process. In drawing complex forms, keep the following points in mind: These imaginary slices strengthen t hedimensional effect of the drawn and show the volume of the object. Pay close attentionto overlapping forms and negative spaces in the composition. Knowing where to begin, how to proceed, and when to stop are crucial to the process of drawing.
Building up a drawing in asystematic way is an important concept. We should advance by progressive stages and construct a drawing from the ground up. Each successive iteration or cycle through the drawing process should first resolve the relationships between the major parts, then resolve the relationships within each part, and finally readjust the relationships between the major parts once again. Tediously finishing one part of a drawing before going on to the next can easily result in distorting the relationships between each part and the rest of the composition.
Maintaining a consistent level of completeness or incompleteness across the entire surface of adrawing is important to preserving aunified, balanced, and focused image.
The following procedure prescribes a way of seeing as well as drawing. It involves building up a drawing in the following stages: Since our perception is discriminating, we should also be selective in what we draw.
How we frame and compose a view, and what we emphasize with our drawingtechnique, will tell others what attracted our attentionand what visual qualities we focused on. In this way, our drawings will naturally communicate our perceptions wit haneconomy of means. Composing aperspective view of a sceneinvolves positioning ourselves at a particular point in space and deciding how to frame what we see.
All three should not have equal emphasis; one should dominate to heightent he pictorial space of the drawing. Once thecomposition for aview is established, we use the analytical process of drawing to establish its structural framework. Let this structureremain visible, for it clarifies pictorial relationships and serves as a preparatory underdrawing for what comes later.
In drawing anenvironmental setting- an outdoor space or an interior room-we view the scene from a fixed position in space. The structure must therefore be regulated by the principles of linear perspective. We are concerned here principally with the pictorial effects of linear perspective- the convergence of parallel lines and the diminishing size of objects with depth.
Our mind interprets what we see and presents an objective reality based on what we know of an object. In drawing a perspectiveview, we attempt to illustrate an optical reality. These two are often at odds, and the mind usually wins out. Then we shift the pencil to another line and use the initial measurement to gauge the length of the second line.
We gauge the angle between the two visually. Then we transfer this angular measurement to the drawing, using as guides the edges of the drawing surface that correspond to the vertical or horizont al reference line. Checking alignments in this way effectively controlsthe proportions and relations of both positive and negative shapes. This plane may be the wall of a room. We focus on a specific point and draw - a horizontal.
If the vanishing points for a set of horizontal lines lie off the sheet of the drawing. We can then reproduce the sameproportions for the rear vertical edge. These receding lines along with the horizon line then serve as visual guides for any other lines that converge at the same point.
Tothis scaffolding, we add tonal values to represent light and dark areas of the scene, define planes in space, model their form, describe surface color and texture, and convey spatial depth. Work from light to dark by mapping layering shapes of tonal value over preceding areas of value. If an area istoo light, we can always darken it.
But once an area has been darkened too much and becomes muddy, it is difficult to correct. Avoid employing large areas of solid dark tones, which obliterate detail and disrupt our reading of the form of asurface.
To depict the modifying effects of reflected light, we vary the tonal value of surfaces in shade and those onwhich shadows are cast. The effects of reflected light, however, should be suggested in asubtle way, so as not to disrupt the nature of the surface in shade or shadow.
In either case, we can define the outer edges of shadows with acontrast in value, never with a drawn line. A highlight on a colored surface will appear much lighter than the same hue seen in shade or within a shadow.
It is through these details that we sense and communicate the inherent qualities of a subject or uniqueness of a place. The smaller parts and details of a drawing must join in a way that further explains the whole. This structure provides aframework for aparticular area or feature to be worked on in greater detail and more elaborately. By this contrast. We can never include ever: J detail in a drawing. Some editing is necessary as we attempt to communicate particular qualities of form and space, and this often means tolerating adegree of incompleteness.
J incompleteness of adrawn image involves and invites the viewer to participate in its completion. Even our perception of optical reality is usually incomplete, being edited by the knowledge we bringto the act of seeing and our momentary needs and concerns.
At one end of the spectrum lies the presentation drawing, which attempt sto simulate as clearlyas possible the future reality of a design proposal. At the other end is the diagram, which has the ability to explain something without necessarily representing it in a pictorial way.Through the interplay of tonal values we are able to: The prime objective behind its original formation and subsequent revisions was to provide a clear.
The picture plane is always perpendicular to the central axis of vision CAV. Digital libraries Many CAD and modeling programs include ready-made libraries or templates of t hese contextual elements. An effective presentation, however, also possess important collective characteristics. Continuity ;.. For axial compositions, t he expansion occurs either along the organizing axis or perpendicular to it. This set is t herefore shown in true size and shape, whilethe other vertical set and the principal horizont al set of planesare bothforeshortened.
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