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A MEDICINA DA IMORTALIDADE PDF

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A Medicina Da Imortalidade Pdf

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Results The results demonstrated an improvement in pain in both groups, there being a significant statistical difference between them only for the evaluation via Pressure Algometry. The ingestion of omega 3 was effective for obtaining a better proportion of omega 6 and omega 3 and with the reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Conclusion The anti-inflammatory potential of fatty acid omega 3 and also the effectiveness with pain remission was confirmed. Indexing terms: Fatty acids.

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Supplementary feeding. The sparse or unbalanced consumption of certain nutrients can exacerbate pain and inflammation. Therefore, research studies have suggested safer, more natural alternatives for the treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with these conditions, such as supplementing diet with essential fatty acids 1.

Western diets favor the intake of a large quantity of omega 6 n-6 as opposed to omega 3 n-3 , and this may be the primary cause of several chronic diseases that afflict the population The proper proportions of these acids, n-3 and n-6, in the diet, is essential for maintaining a good cellular metabolism and have an influence on various biological processes 5 ; they can reduce the risk of diseases such as hypertension and cardiac problems 4, , and influence other chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis; they improve mental health; in addition to the fact that this equilibrium in a 3: Centrally-mediated chronic myalgia is a chronic muscular disorder characterized by neurogenic inflammation and responds to treatment with antiinflammatory drugs In this sense, the aim of the present study has been to evaluate the effects of omega-3 dietary supplements in the remission of pain in patients with centrally mediated chronic myalgia.

Painful facial diseases, of musculoskeletal origin, of the masticatory apparatus are grouped under the denomination Temporomandibular Disorders TMD.

Muscular abnormalities are pointed to as being one of the main causes of chronic pain and non-dental pain in the orofacial region The treatment of TMD can be carried out by way of occlusion, drug, physical or psychological therapies. Parafunctional habits, stress and muscular hyperactivity appear to be involved in its cause.

Almeida et al. Patients were divided into three groups: Group "A": The patients made use of the plate for a period of 45 days and were evaluated 30 days after the conclusion of the therapy. Statistical analysis of the results made it possible to verify that the use of the stabilizing plate, whether or not in combination with antiinflammatory medication, showed a better behavior than the use of anti-inflammatory drugs by themselves. Masticatory muscle dysfunctions are classified as either acute or chronic.

Chronic pain may be linked to behavioral and psychosocial impairment Moreover, it can affect the Central Nervous System CNS and lead to certain muscular responses, such as a profile of myofascial pain.

Another muscular disorder influenced by the Central Nervous System is referred to as centrally mediated chronic myalgia. This condition is dependent upon antidromically produced neurogenic inflammation a condition in which the nervous stimulus moves in an opposite direction to normal via central mechanisms Centrally mediated chronic myalgia is a continuous chronic muscular disturbance predominantly originating from the effects of the Central Nervous System, which are felt peripherally in the muscle tissue.

It is not characterized however by the classic signals associated with inflammation hyperemia, edema. However, this clinical disturbance presents characteristics that are close to other inflammatory dysfunctions and responds to treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs This pathology in a jaw-raising muscle temporal, masseter and medial pterygoid is accentuated during the movement of opening due to the stretching of the muscles and during chewing and occlusion of the teeth, due to the contraction of the painful muscle The most common cause of centrally mediated chronic myalgia is prolonged muscular sensitivity.

The longer the patient complains of myogenic pain, the greater the probability of developing muscular disturbance. The muscles are very sensitive to palpation and structural dysfunction is common.

Another common clinical characteristic is the prolonged duration of the symptoms The sensation of pain is not a single entity. As with other sensations palate or temperature , pain can be described by the degree of intensity and unpleasantness, discomfort or anxiety Rizzatti-Barbosa et al.

Muscular palpation, however, is the most widely used clinical technique in evaluating muscular pain 16,18 , but the various Manual Palpation methods carry obvious difficulties: Much evidence has shown that the evaluation of sensitivity to muscle pain can be improved if, instead of using a finger or fingers, the examiner were to use an instrument that applies pressure to a specific area at a constant uniform rate pressure algometer.

Using this method, at the point at which pressure applied by the apparatus generates a painful sensation, the patient informs the professional. As well as obtaining the pressure pain threshold, it produces reliable, valid measurements of the pain threshold, both in patients with various musculoskeletal pain syndromes and in asymptomatic individuals N-3 and n-6 are essential fatty acids because they are not synthesized by the organism and should be obtained through the diet.

The consumption of these fatty acids has been diminishing.

For a better n-3 and n-6 balance, it is necessary to reduce the use of vegetable oils rich in n-6, replacing them with oils rich in n-3, such as rapeseed oil, an increase in fish intake two or three times a week or n-3 supplementation by means of fish oil capsules This type of supplementation is a low-cost option and quite acceptable to patients, it being rare to experience any adverse side effects Polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega 3 family PUFA n-3 act as antagonists to arachidonic acid , and may affect both natural and acquired immunity components, including the production of cytokines, by modulating the amounts and types of eicosanoids produced 6,21, N-3 may be used as a therapy for acute or chronic inflammation 3 , and for disorders that involve the inappropriate activation of the immune response 23, Epidemiological studies have supported a connection between a diet rich in the consumption of fish and seafood and a fall in the prevalence of depression and other disturbances such as bipolar disorder, personality deviation and schizophrenia Both the consumption of fish and high n-3 blood concentrations are linked to a reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases , However, Kew et al.

They came to the conclusion that an ALA intake of less than or equal to 9. In a study by Wallace et al. Supplementation with fish oil reduced the proportions of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid and increased the proportions of EPA and DHA in the plasma phospholipids.

Supplementation with 1. Adverse effects cited include gastrointestinal discomfort with nausea, diarrhea and an aftertaste of fish in the mouth 6, The findings, in respect of n-3 supplementation, present notable limitations such as small samples, too short a period of monitoring to determine the effects of long-term use, as well as inconclusive research studies Part of the inflammatory process is specifically modulated by prostaglandins and leukotrienes 1.

The type of prostaglandin or leukotriene produced during an inflammatory response is determined by the composition of lipids of the cellular membrane, which is directly influenced by the type of fats in the diet. By increasing the availability of DHA and EPA in the diet or as supplementation with capsules containing these fatty acids, it is possible that they competitively inhibit the release of arachidonic acid and consequently reduce the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids 7. The different activities of the eicosanoids derived from AA as opposed to those derived from EPA are one of the most important mechanisms explaining why PUFA n-3 exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in many diseases In a study performed by Lacerda et al.

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Control Group, with no change to diet; and the Experimental Group, in which diet therapy was proposed rich in n It was found that the balance between the fatty acids n-3 and n-6 obtained through the diet, over a period of 15 days, significantly reduced post-op pain and inflammation.

The evaluation of the intake of fatty acids may be conducted using questionnaires. However, a more accurate method for analyzing omega 3 is gas chromatography, used in various studies to analyze fatty acids in both biological and non-biological environments The sample comprised only female patients in order to obtain a homogeneous group and also by virtue of the fact that there is a greater demand for treatment by women, according to the literature A total of 24 patients satisfying the criteria were selected for the sample composition, aged between 19 and 42, and who had begun TMD support treatment using neuromuscular myorelaxant splint.

The following patients were excluded from the sample: A clinical examination was conducted for diagnostic purposes and an evaluation of the pain level of the patients. The patients received information about the project and once they agreed to participate in this project, they signed the Free and Informed Consent Form to enable participation in the research project. The patients were evaluated for spontaneous pain by means of visual analog scales and provoked pain by way of digital and instrumental palpation pressure algometry of the temporal and masseter muscles.

The visual analog scale, which measured the subjective intensity of the pain felt by the patient, is graduated with whole numbers from 0 to 10, where "0" means no pain and "10" is maximum pain felt by the patient.

Pain from palpation was classified as 0 no pain , 1 mild pain , 2 moderate pain and 3 severe pain. The palpation was carried out by one examiner using index and middle fingers, exerting pressure for 4 seconds A pressure algometer was also used for this evaluation of muscle sensitivity, by providing objective, quantitative documentation of the myalgia The data were recorded at T0 start , and T7 7 days , T14 14 days , T21 21 days and T28 28 days after the application of the methodology.

The patients in the Experimental Group were provided simultaneously with the use of the neuromuscular myorelaxant splint, capsules of 1g of fish oil containing EPA, DHA and ALA , three times a day after breakfast, lunch and dinner , for 28 consecutive days.

The patients in the Control Group, on the other hand, were instructed not to take foods rich in n-3 and only used the neuromuscular myorelaxant splint. This collection took place in the morning, after fasting for 12 hours.

The fatty acid esters in the plasma were analyzed via gas chromatography in the Analytical Identification and Quantification Center of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora.

The preparation of the sample was carried out separation of the plasma, lipid extraction and conversion of the fatty acids in methyl esters. The chromatographic analyses were carried out with a gas chromatograph Agilent Technologies N equipped with a flame ionization detector and a split-splitless injection system.

The following inflammatory markers were also analyzed: The tests were performed in duplicate. Firstly, a normality test was applied to the data obtained. To evaluate data within the same group, Friedman's test was employed. The descriptive values found in the muscular evaluation via Manual Palpation are shown in table 1 , where the mean values can be found for the level of pain during palpation of the right-side masseter muscle, leftside masseter muscle, right-side temporal muscle and leftside temporal muscle.

The results showed a statistically significant improvement of the painful condition in the muscles evaluated, both in the Experimental Group and the Control Group, with the right masseter muscle in the Experimental Group presenting the highest rate of improvement. When performing the statistical analysis to compare the degree of improvement, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups, despite descriptively observing a slightly better result in the Experimental Group.

In the muscular evaluation using the Pressure Algometer PA , the pressure pain threshold was found for the four muscle groups. Similarly to what took place during Manual Palpation, there was an improvement in results where the pressure pain threshold increased for both groups, taking into account the start and end arithmetic means. As for the weekly evaluation, there was a situation of worsening, as in the right masseter muscle in the Control Group, where the pain threshold only rose at the time of the third evaluation 21 days , and also cases where the clinical profile remained unaltered from one week to the next, such as with the right and left temporal muscle in the Control Group from T0 to T7, right temporal muscle in the Experimental Group from T21 to T28 Table 2.

A comparison of the variance between the start and end Pressure Algometry between the groups was also established. When analyzing Tabela 3 , it can be seen that the muscles on the left side showed an effective improvement when compared to those on the right, as higher arithmetic means could be found on the right side. A pain evaluation was also carried out using the visual analog scale, in which the subjective account of the patients' pain was assessed.

A positive evolution was found in both the Experimental Group and the Control Group. The mean of the Experimental Group was 0. The results were expressed based on the percentage of total fatty acids Table 4. A number of the standard deviations were high because the variance between patients was large. Centrally mediated chronic myalgia is not characterized by all of the cardinal signs of inflammation, principally the classic signs hyperemia, edema , which could be observed during the period of the study.

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However, this clinical disturbance presents characteristics close to other inflammatory dysfunctions, and responds to treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs 7. Because of this, it was proposed to carry out the study using n-3, quoted by various authors on account of its potential as an anti-inflammatory drug 2,6,16,19,21,26 , as therapy for cases of chronic inflammation as proposed by Calder 23 , Calder 24 , Simopoulos 4 , however, in this study, its performance was checked in parallel with the use of neuromuscular myorelaxant splints.

The improvement in muscle pain was achieved in the two groups tracked in this study, being greater in the Experimental Group. Rodrigo de Castro is no exception. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Hamburg was the exile One of those consequences was an accurate critical city for several New-Christian medicine doctors from Portugal.

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They were namely cultural, social and religious based in an exploration doctors of kings, princes and dukes and they had a prominent process supported on roots and self-knowledge. Eclecticism is literary activity publishing significant books that are reedited the result in terms of knowledge, but in questions of religion it till today. Among those physicians was Samuel da Silva is more complex to explain in few pages. These were the basic ? In several parts of Medicus Politicus, the cabalistic , and Medicus Politicus In this particular work of medical deontology, Castro reveals an identity and religious [2] V.

Michel Foucault, Vigiar e Punir. Lisboa: Colibri, , p.

But the difficult task is to have a virtuous conduct based in Cabala, Astrology, as well as mystical and magical themes several virtues that he enrolls and explains. Prudence that is are treated and studied as part of life, in the medical practice synonym of economy and policy should be applied to each and formation. In order to be is not apart from this questions at this time, and it is not an prudent Castro proposes that the doctor should honor, love and idiosyncrasy of Castro, nor even of converses, because it is fear the divinity, refining faithfulness.

These capacities of Man common to several authors from different areas of study, would therefore be a cure to the soul passions as Galen defines: religious background and places [6]. Consequently, the believe sadness, anger, greed, fear and envy. At the same time, would that the words and prays can be a part of cure and consequently provide a better understanding realized in obedience to the an involvement with the divine is a consequence of the act of superiors, concord amongst equals and justice to the inferiors.

Thus, the purity of heart, containment of the mouth and discipline of the body would be the best conditions to achieve Medicine for Rodrigo de Castro should be an imitation of this goal [9].

So, moral virtues and in nourishment [10] as well as circumspection, providence, are the basis of a good doctor and of a good person. Personal experience and Self-knowledge Therefore, Castro joins theological and human virtues and adds The Medicus Politicus is a composition of experiences from Ethics based in Socrates and Aristotle 12 with no distinction the author that he wanted to leave to his children and disciples between private and public spheres in the sense of Hannah in order to transform them in perfect doctors.

The aim is to Arendt [ 13 ]. Self-knowledge and self-realization in the transmit the practice and wisdom to achieve a new level of community is consequently connected. The doctor has a divine ways to achieve a better conduct with the help of trusting capacity to heal, but as a mere delegate because God is the real people.

Character problems must be controlled by each other healer, inventor of Medicine. For Castro the doctor has the and could also be scrutinized by close friends. These trustable exquisite potential to intervene in this entire cosmos or spheres, close friends must be chosen by each one, and at this part i.

Accordingly the doctor In order to conclude this process of hard work and search chooses among his friends someone who could transmit Castro provides a remedy: the cabalistic process that protection and the same sensation when a doctor cures an transforms the vices in virtues and the bad in good.

This proximity to the Lord is argumentative [ 14 ].The aim is to Arendt [ 13 ].

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