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LAND POLLUTION PDF FILE

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PDF | World Soil Day was established in by the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) to celebrate the importance of soil and its vital. PDF | 20 minutes read | On Jan 1, , Zerrin Savaşan and others published Pollution, Land. Land pollution, in short, is a much bigger and more subtle problem than .. sometimes mine owners even have to file financial bonds to ensure.


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“Soil pollution” refers to the presence in the soil of a chemical or substance out The main anthropogenic sources of soil pollution are the chemicals used in or. Land Pollution PPT and PDF for Free Download: Pollution, whenever we talk about pollution then the major things we get in our mind is water. managed, restored to productive use or protected to prevent future contamination . Fact sheet. REPORTING LAND. POLLUTION. To report land pollution.

This is because we can see the effects caused by the pollutants and their extent very clearly. It is normal human psychology to believe in what you see first hand. Our land, on the other hand, is living a nightmare too.

We may not be able to see the effects with clarity, but l and is being polluted and abused constantly and we are unable to calculate the damages incurred. Land Pollution has come to become one of the serious concerns that we collectively battle. The degradation of land that could be used constructively, in other words, is land pollution. Land Pollution has led to a series of issues that we have come to realize in recent times, after decades of neglect.

The increasing numbers of barren land plots and the decreasing numbers of forest cover are increasing at an alarming ratio. Moreover, the extension of cities and towns due to the increasing population is leading to further exploitation of the land.

Landfills and reclamations are being planned and executed to meet the increased demand for lands. This leads to further deterioration of land, and pollution caused by the landfill contents. Also due to the lack of green cover, the land gets affected in several ways like soil erosion occurs washing away the fertile portions of the land.

Or even a landslide can be seen as an example. Causes of Land Pollution 1. Deforestation and soil erosion Deforestation carried out to create dry lands is one of the major concerns.

Land that is once converted into dry or barren land, can never be made fertile again, whatever the magnitude of measures to redeem it is. Land conversion, meaning the alteration or modification of the original properties of the land to make it use-worthy for a specific purpose is another major cause. This hampers the land immensely. Also there is a constant waste of land. Unused available land over the years turns barren; this land then cannot be used. So in search of more land, potent land is hunted and its indigenous state is compromised with.

Agricultural activities With the growing human population , demand for food has increased considerably. Farmers often use highly toxic fertilizers and pesticides to get rid off insects, fungi and bacteria from their crops.

Pollution Facts & Types of Pollution

However with the overuse of these chemicals, they result in contamination and poisoning of soil. Mining activities During extraction and mining activities , several land spaces are created beneath the surface. Too much wind or water, destruction of soil structure by excessive plowing, excessive nutrients, overgrazing, and overproduction of crops erode soil, damaging its structure and drastically reducing its productivity until it's little more than dust.

At its worst, soil erosion becomes desertification: How serious is the problem? Deforestation doesn't only harm the place where the trees are cut down.

A study by Princeton University researchers found that if the Amazon rainforest were completely destroyed, it would have a dramatic effect on the atmosphere, which would carry across to places like the United States, causing drought and potentially desertification there as well [8].

Unfortunately, because soil erosion has so far affected developing countries more than the developed world, it's a problem that receives relatively little attention. Accelerating climate change will soon alter that. In a future of hotter weather and more intense storms, it will become increasingly difficult to maintain soil in a fertile and productive state, while heavy rainstorms and flash floods will wash away topsoil more readily.

Effects of Land Pollution

Meanwhile, agriculture may become impossible in coastal areas inundated by saltwater carried in by rising sea levels. We might think of global warming as an example of air pollution because it's caused mostly by humans releasing gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. But if it leads to dramatic sea-level rise and coastal erosion, you could argue that it will become an example of land pollution as well.

With luck and the right atmospheric conditions, air and water pollution disperse and disappear.

What is Land Pollution?

What makes land pollution such a problem is that land is static, so land pollution stays exactly where it is until and unless someone cleans it up. Land that's polluted stays polluted; land that's urbanized almost invariably stays urbanized. As we've already see, plastics take hundreds of years to disappear while radiation can contaminate land for ten times longer. That means landfill sites and radioactive waste dumps remain that way pretty much indefinitely.

The simplest effect of land pollution is that it takes land out of circulation. The more land we use up, the less we have remaining.

That might not sound a problem where there's plenty of land in rural areas, but it's certainly a concern where productive agricultural land is concerned, especially as the world's population continues to increase. The biggest problem comes when contaminated land is returned to use, either as building or agricultural land. Houses might be built on brownfield former industrial sites that haven't been cleaned up properly, putting future owners and their families at risk.

Or people might get their water from rivers supplied by groundwater contaminated by landfill sites, mine workings, or otherwise polluted land some distance away. Illnesses such as cancer develop over years or decades for a variety of reasons and it's extremely difficult to prove that they've been caused by something like local environmental pollution, especially when people move homes during their lifetime.

No-one knows how much land is contaminated, how contamination varies from one place to another, or how land contaminants react with one another once they enter watercourses and become water pollution.

So the scale of the problem and its ultimate effects are impossible to determine. However, we do know what effect individual pollutants have. We know, for example, that lead is a toxic heavy metal that has all kinds of unpleasant effects on human health; it's been implicated in developmental deficits such as reductions in intelligence in children [9].

We know that some chemicals are carcinogenic cancer-causing [10] while others cause congenital defects such as heart disease [11]. At the very least, it seems prudent not to introduce dangerous chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants, into the environment where they may mat harm people's health for many years into the future. Why does land pollution matter?

Although Earth might seem a pretty big place, only about a third of its surface is covered in land, and there are now over seven billion people trying to survive here. Most of our energy around 85 percent worldwide [12] still comes from fossil fuels buried under the ground and, since we haven't yet figured out how to mine in space, so do all our minerals.

Much of our food is grown on the surface of the planet; the water we need comes from the planet's surface too or from rocks buried just underground.

In short, our lives are as intimately tied to the surface of Earth as the plants that grow from the ground. Anything that degrades, damages, or destroys the land ultimately has an impact on human life and may threaten our very ability to survive.

That's why we need solutions to the problem. What kind of solutions? Ideally, we'd look at every aspect of land pollution in turn and try to find a way of either stopping it or reducing it. With problems like waste disposal, solutions are relatively simple. We know that recycling that can dramatically reduce the need for sending waste to landfills; it also reduces the need for incineration, which can produce "fly ash" toxic airborne dust that blows may miles until it falls back to land or water.

We'll always need mines but, again, recycling of old materials can reduce our need for new ones. In some countries, it's now commonplace to require mine operators to clean-up mines and restore the landscape after they've finished working them; sometimes mine owners even have to file financial bonds to ensure they have the money in place to do this. Greater interest in organic food and farming might, one day, lead to a reduction in the use of harmful agricultural chemicals, but that's unlikely to happen anytime soon.

Even so, public concerns about food and chemical safety have led to the withdrawal of the more harmful pesticides—in some countries, at least. Ideally, we don't just need to stop polluting land: In the United States, a program called the Superfund has been decontaminating hundreds of polluted sites since Where sites can't be completely restored, it's possible to "recycle" them and benefit the environment in other ways; for example, a number of contaminated sites and former mines in the United States have now become wind farms or sites for large areas of solar panels [14].

New technologies will almost certainly make it easier to "recycle" polluted land in future. For example, the relatively new form of waste disposal called plasma gasification makes it possible to "mine" former landfills, converting the old waste into an energy-rich gas and a relatively safe solid waste that can be used as a building material.

Bioremediation is another very promising land-cleaning technology, in which microbes of various kinds eat and digest waste and turn it into safer end-products; phytoremediation is a similar concept but involves using plants, such as willow trees, to pull contaminants from the soil.

All these things offer hope for a better future—a future where we value the environment more, damage the land less—and realize, finally, that Earth itself is a limited and precious resource. Thankfully, microorganisms don't mind tackling the kind of waste we'd prefer to dump and ignore. Here, scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee are testing whether soils contaminated with toxic chemicals such as PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls can be cleaned up by bacteria.

Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy. Clicking on the upward arrows will take you back to your place where each item is referenced in the main text. All rights reserved. Full copyright notice and terms of use.

Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid. Woodford, Chris. Retrieved from https: You are here: Land pollution. Sponsored links.

Detailed information about the federal program to clean up hazardous waste sites in the United States. UK Environment Agency: Land contamination: Official information about the UK's policy of cleaning up contaminated land. Articles Land degradation threatens human wellbeing, major report warns by Jonathan Watts.

The Guardian, March 26, Over 3. One fifth of China's farmland polluted by Jennifer Duggan. Water pollution can also severely affect marine life. For example, sewage causes pathogens to grow, while organic and inorganic compounds in water can change the composition of the precious resource.

According to the EPA, low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water are also considered a pollutant. Warming water can also be harmful. The artificial warming of water is called thermal pollution. It can happen when a factory or power plant that is using water to cool its operations ends up discharging hot water. This makes the water hold less oxygen, which can kill fish and wildlife.

The sudden change of temperature in the body of water can also kill fish. According to the University of Georgia , it is estimated that around half of the water withdrawn from water systems in the United States each year is used for cooling electric power plants.

Depending on water flow, the water temperature quickly returns to ambient temperatures that do not harm fish.

Nutrient pollution, also called eutrophication, is another type of water pollution.

It is when nutrients, such as nitrogen , are added into bodies of water. The nutrient works like fertilizer and makes algae grow at excessive rates, according to NOAA.

The algae blocks light from other plants. The plants die and their decomposition leads to less oxygen in the water. Less oxygen in the water kills aquatic animals. Air pollution occurs when things that aren't normally there are added to the air.

A common type of air pollution happens when people release particles into the air from burning fuels. This pollution looks like soot, containing millions of tiny particles, floating in the air.

Another common type of air pollution is dangerous gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and chemical vapors.

These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, creating acid rain and smog. Other sources of air pollution can come from within buildings, such as secondhand smoke.

Finally, air pollution can take the form of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide, which are warming the planet through the greenhouse effect. According to the EPA , the greenhouse effect is when gases absorb the infrared radiation that is released from the Earth, preventing the heat from escaping. This is a natural process that keeps our atmosphere warm.

If too many gases are introduced into the atmosphere, though, more heat is trapped and this can make the planet artificially warm, according to Columbia University.

Air pollution kills more than 2 million people each year, according to a study published in the journal of Environmental Research Letters.Ensure that you do not litter on the ground and do proper disposal of garbage. Those of us who are lucky enough to live in rich countries take our basic survival for granted: Inhalation exposure to volatile compounds during hot showers and skin exposure while bathing or using water for recreation are also potential routes of exposure to water pollutants.

When scientists discovered how to create energy by splitting atoms in nuclear power plants , they also created the world's hardest waste disposal problem.

Waste disposal didn't always mean land pollution. You might see factory smoke rising through the air or oil slicks drifting over the ocean, but you can't easily see the poisons that seep from underground mines, the garbage we tip into landfills by the truckload, or the way the very soil that feeds us is turning slowing to dust.

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