A HISTORY OF ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY MAJID FAKHRY PDF
A History of. Islamic Philosophy. SECOND EDITION l\1ajid Fakhry. Longman London r Columbia University Press New f akhry, Majid. /\history oflslamic . The first comprehensive survey of Islamic philosophy from the seventh century to the present, this classic discusses Islamic thought and its effect on the cultural. PDF download for A History of Islamic Philosophy Majid Fakhry New York: Columbia University Press, Article Information.
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Majid Fakhry is professor emeritus of philosophy at the American University of Beirut and adjunct professor at Georgetown University. He is the author of several. F. E. Peters; Majid Fakhry. Pp. xv, $ Fakhry. Majid. A History of Islamic Philosophy This content is only available as a PDF. A history of Islamic philosophy. [Majid Fakhry] -- Islam is the religion of over nine hundred million Muslims, and was the latest of the three monotheistic faiths to.
A History of Islamic Philosophy - 3rd edition
Between these two opposite poles move the other ethical formations: the theological, which was conditioned to some extent by philosophical categories and concepts, and the religious, which, although it does not neglect the discursive method altogether, is nevertheless far less dependent on philosophical ethics. Accordingly, the present work has been divided into four parts dealing respectively with a scriptural morality, b theological ethics, c philosophical ethics, and d religious morality.
The question is sometimes asked whether there is such a thing as Islamic ethics. The well-meaning questioner is obviously puzzled by the legalism and ritualism of the religious and institutional life of Muslim individuals or groups, as well as the comparatively scant contribution of Muslim authors to ethical and political discussions during the classical and post-classical periods, especially when set against their massive contribution to literary, linguistic, philosophical, historical, theological and scientific subjects.
The present work is a modest attempt to exhibit the ethical material in Islamic thought as objectively as possible.
The task of criticism or appraisal has been kept as much in the background as possible. Modern studies on Islamic ethics, especially in European languages, have been very limited in number or scope. One of the earliest synoptic accounts is given in de Boer's article on "Ethics and Morality Muslim ," in: Hasting's Encyclopaediaof Religion and Ethics, V, - followed in by D.
Donaldson's Studies in Muslim Ethics. This book contains a lot of material on Arabic and Persian ethics, but the material is presented in an ill-organized manner. More recently, G. Each is a valuable con- tribution to an important aspect of Islamic ethics.
Of considerable importance is the contribution of Mohammed Arkoun to philosophical ethics, especially that of Miskawayh. His French translation of Tahdh'ib al-Akhlii. Equally important is Constantine K. Zurayk's English translation of the Tahdhzb, entitled The Refinement of Character , which was preceded in by a critical edition of that important ethical treatise.
Publications in periodicals, both in Arabic and European languages cannot be discussed here; many of them, however, will be referred to in our notes and given in the bibliography at the end of the book.
For the speculative contribution and the historical significance of many of the authors discussed in this book, such as al-Razi, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Miskawayh and al-Ghazali, the reader should refer to my History of Islamic Philosophy , of which the present work is in some respects an attempt at filling the gaps in the field of ethics.
It is my pleasant duty to thank the many institutions and individuals who have contributed in one way or another to the writing of the present book. I am grateful to the Near Eastern Studies Department at Princeton University for hosting my research while on sabbatical from the American University of Beirut in 75, and to the Philosophy and Classical Departments at Princeton for the opportunity to present publicly at two colloquia material embodied in this book.
To Professors Gregory Vlastos and David Furley, who organized and chaired the two colloquia, I am particularly indebted for the stimulus generated by these and other private discussions.
Hourani of New York University at Buffalo for arranging for me to visit these universities and speak on other aspects of philosophical ethics in Islam. Ethical enquiry has therefore always placed a special stress on the definition of ethical concepts and the justification or appraisal of moral judgements, as well as the discrimination between right and wrong actions or decisions.
To be complete, an ethical system must deal adequately with these aspects of moral enquiry in an articulate and coherent way.
The Koran, around which the whole of Muslim moral, religious and social life revolves, contains no ethical theoriesin the strict sense, although it embodies the whole of the Islamic ethos. How to go about eliciting this ethos thus becomes of paramount importance to the student of Islamic ethics. There appear to be three promising directions in which the search can be fruitfully conducted, all of which lead back to the Koranic text itself: Koranic exegesis tafszr ,jurisprudence Uiqh and scholastic theology kalam.
The Siifis and the philosophers, who frequently invoked the authority of the Koran in support of their theoretical and ethical claims cannot be said to have developed a thoroughly Islamic view of the universe and of man, owing to the extraneous influences, Indian, Greek, Christian and other, which conditioned their thought.
Their ethical theories therefore were marked by a high degree of complexity, which set them apart from the general class of theories rooted in the Koran and the Traditions.
Those theories may be designated as 'scriptural' or 'theological', depending on the extent to which they relied on the text of Scripture or the degree to which this text was either accepted at face value or interpreted dialectically.
A typologyof Islamic ethics of the kind that will be attempted in this study must clearly exhibit these divergences.
Arabic and Islamic Psychology and Philosophy of Mind
We start from the premise that the Koran and the Traditions embody the original core of the Islamic ethical spirit, but, as already mentioned, no ethical theories in the strict sense. What sense are we to make of this original core, which each conflicting school of thought has drawn upon or appropriated? Can the twentieth-century student of Islam, or the Muslim modernist for that matter, arrogate to himself the right to advance his own interpretation as the only valid one, or must be always dutifully accept the traditional interpretation s as the only authoritative one s?
Is there in the end a single and privileged interpretation of the revealed text of scripture? The fact of doctrinal conflict, first among the jurisconsults Uuqafza during the earliest period, and subsequently among the theologians mutakallimiin of the eighth century, clearly disproves the rival claims of infallibility, or even doctrinal pre-eminence.
A History of Islamic Philosophy
These rival claims are ultimately rooted in rival interpretations, which are definitely distinguishable from the original uninterpreted text of Scripture; whatever one's estimate of these interpretations, this text must to some extent be allowed to stand on its own, to speak for itself. Otherwise, the possibility of ever fresh and significant interpretations will be precluded, which must seriously endanger if not the validity of this text, then at least its relevance to every generation of searching Muslims who may wish to pattern their lives, as twentieth-century modernists and fundamentalists alike have attempted to do, on the Koranic model.
The commentators and jurists, who obviously cannot claim a monopoly of Truth, can nevertheless be said to have given the closest and most faithful interpretation of the Koranic text, grounded in traditional, grammatical, literary and linguistic usage.
Such, however, is not the case of other groups of ethical and philosophical writers. The theologians, who also take their starting point from this text, have nevertheless relied in varying degrees on extra-textual evidence in their attempt to elicit the meaning of this text: Greek logic, Christian theology and the natural light of unaided reason. The philosophers, whether Neo-Platonists, like al-Fara. Although they do not ignore or deliberately disavow the authority of the Koran, their primary allegiance is to the canons of philosophical evidence, as bequeathed by Greek philosophy.
Their ethical discussions are sometimes embellishedby Koranic quotations, in the manner of other pious Muslim authors, but it is primarily the dictates of syllogistic reasoning that determine the conclusions they arrive at.
If the theologians are said to exploit the syllogistic process in order to elicit or defend their sense of the significance of the sacred text, the philosophers might be said to be guided primarily by this process and to recognize at best its concurrence with that text. To put it differently, for the theologians and even more so for the jurists, the sacred text is the ultimate arbiter of Truth; for the philosophers it is reason.
This examination will be supported in some cases by references to some of the major commentators of the Koran, such as al-Tabari d.
References to theological or philosophical writers will be kept to a minimum, to avoid partisanship. Most of those writers, as we have already mentioned, claim explicitly or implicitly a firm basis for their interpretations or theories in the text of scripture, the universal fountainhead of Truth. Before the ninth and tenth centuries, when systematic ethical discussion had become somewhat developed, we could only speak of pre-ethical speculation on questions, subsequently identified as the subject-matter of ethics.
However, neither the commentators nor the jurists were entirely innocent of ethical culture, and their interpretations of the Koran and the Traditions inevitably reflected that culture in however elementary or primitive a manner.
Accordingly, it is not altogether impossible to isolate their answers to those questions which were identified by their contemporaries or successors, philosophers and theologians alike, with the substance of ethical enquiry.
Here we must distinguish between two major currents: a a rationalist current initiated by the Qadari and MuCtazilite theologians of the eighth and ninth centuries, and b a semi-rationalist and voluntarist one initiated by the ex-MuCtazilite Abu'l-l:lasan al-AshCari d.
It was this current which was ultimately identified with orthodoxy. Principal representatives of the Muctazilite school are Abu'l-Hudhayl d. Moore He reduces all ethical questions to three: 1. What is meantby good?
What things are good in themselves? What ought we to do to bring about the realization of this good? See Principia Ethica, Cambridge, , 37f. He further claims that "the writing of a general history that would give scholars a comprehensive view of the whole field is a prerequisite of progress in that field, since it is not possible otherwise to determine the areas in which further research must be pursued or the gaps which must be filled" p.
Fakhry's A History of Islamic Philosophy will not only help scholars supply that missing gap in textbooks on history of philosophy, but it should also help dispel some of the standard misconceptions about Islamic philosophy.
I will only mention briefly three such misconceptions. First, the claim that Arab philosophy is unproductive of any original ideas, that it is simply tantamount to a duplication of Greek philosophy, is philosophically inaccurate and hence does not render justice to the fact that "Islamic philosophy can be said to have followed a distinctive line of development which gave it that unity of form which is a characteristic of the great intellectual movements in history" p.
Second, the claim that Arab philosophy terminated with Ibn Ruschd is equally inaccurate, for recent scholarship on Arabic philosophy has revealed the philosophic treatises of important philosophers pursuant to the decline of Ibn Ruschd's philosophy.
Third, the claim that Arabic philosophy is essentially Islamic i. One should add, in concluding Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
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Journal of the History of Philosophy. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE.
Additional Information. Project MUSE Mission Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.This second edition of Majid Fakhry's highly successful book, first published in , presents the most detailed historical survey to date discussing Islamic philosophy and theology from the seventeenth century to the present.
The greatest figure in the history of the Islamic reaction to Neo-Platonism is al-Ghazali.. Would you also like to submit a review for this item?
Their pronouncements consisted of a few concise sentences, which ended in words having the same rhyme. The chief reason appears to have been the contempt of the Arabs for all foreign tongues, which, seems to have spread like an infection, even to non-Arabs of the most bigoted type.
Email alerts New issue alert. Revealed to Muhammad by God between and from an eternal codex the Preserved Tablet , according to Muslim doctrine, the Qur'an embodies the full range of principles and precepts by which the believer should order his life. Religion, he said, is for the unlettered multitude; philosophy for the chosen few.
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