ZODIAC SIGN PDF
Book of the Signs of the Zodiac for men and women, so that I may undertake and succeed in it through the strength of Yawar Ziwa and. Simat Hiia.* &a. He who. Zodiac Signs / Charms – 3. ”Look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see, and wonder about what makes the universe exist. The Sun spends about a month visiting each Sign and takes a year to journey through the twelve Signs of the Zodiac. It is masculine energy and rules Leo and .
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PDF | On Jan 6, , Miah Adel and others published Favored Zodiac Sign. FOCUS ON ACTIVITY: STAR SIGNS AND PERSONALITY. 1. Read. Aries – 21 March to 20 April. Courageous leaders, energetic, ambitious, lovers of new ideas, . The Zodiac sign Leo from the Liturgical calendar for Ravenna The Liturgical calendar for Ravenna is considered to have been illuminated in Milan, as the text .
In the first two centuries CE a revival of the Pythagorean brotherhood, later labelled Neo-Pythagoreanism, stressed a mystical element, a longing for an experience of the divine. The outstanding writer of this movement is Nicomachus of Gerasa.
Platonism eventually gave rise to theurgy, a word invented in the second century CE to stress the difference with theology: It was started by Chaldean magicians who engaged in evocations of the gods, spells and ritual and was taken up by Platonic philosophers, notably Iamblichus CE Dodds , p.
Scorpio Zodiac Sign Guide
Iamblichus saw himself as the heir to Plato, Pythagoras and Egyptian wisdom Iamblichus As a champion of ritual he stands slightly apart from the Platonic or Neoplatonic tradition. His ideas are known primarily through a book later called On the Mysteries, which presents theurgic ritual in detail Iamblichus Iamblichus considered Egyptian wisdom the source of wisdom, the Pythagorean life the source of practice Shaw , p.
Musical theurgy gave the soul direct contact with the gods, because the soul would remember the divine harmony it had heard before being born into a body. According to Iamblichus, Pythagoras was the first composer of this anagogic music. The first part of the Timaeus survived in a Latin translation by Calcidius. The sixth century philosopher Boethius composed a textbook on music, largely based on the Neo-Pythagorean Nicomachus, which became the foundation of Western music theory until the sixteenth century.
Boethius wrote that there are three kinds of music: This secured the survival of the idea of heavenly harmony through the Middle Ages in Western Europe. As the quadrivium became established in Christian education, the idea was accepted by the clergy, who were also in charge of organized music. In the twelfth century the cathedral school of Chartres became the centre of a renewed interest in the Timaeus, heavenly harmony and astrology.
The main rediscovery of Greek thought on music and the stars took place in the fifteenth century, after the fall of Constantinople in , through the translations and works of the Italian philosopher Marsilio Ficino Ficino stands out in comparison to any thinker before or after him, because he not only embraced the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmos and the role of music in it, but he actually applied it to his own life.
He lived the lifestyle of ancient Pythagoreans who were associated with vegetarianism, frugality, and the sharing of earthly goods. His Pythagoreanism reached the point of religious devotion in his zeal for playing the Orphic lyre and practising the healing arts Joost-Gaugier , p.
The rebirth of Platonic philosophy took place in a circle of thinkers around Ficino. However, Ficino went far beyond the customary acoustical experiments with the monochord by practising musical magic in a ritual context. Voss argues: Contrary to the Platonic and general Western tradition, Ficino ranked the auditory arts over the visual arts when it came to divine revelation Tomlinson , p.
The music spirit arises through the direct combination of three factors, which we can see as the summation of all operative magic: As described by Castiglione, a courtier should have a detached, cool, nonchalant attitude, speak well, sing, recite poetry, have proper bearing, be athletic, know the humanities and classics, paint, draw and possess many other skills. Mirroring this courtly self-image the concept of the artist as intellectual is born Joost-Gaugier , p. Perhaps there was a parallel development of the new self-perception in the arts: The typical Renaissance man was a genius, scientist and artist, breaking through with new ideas.
It was the time of the Copernican revolution, establishing the rational mind as a Solar Logos Campion , p. With Johannes Kepler the idea of the Harmony of the Spheres reached its full development in astronomy.
Kepler found the planets to move in ellipses around the sun instead of circles around the earth. Kepler recognized the proportions of the five Platonic solids in the planetary orbits producing the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. The division of the ecliptic in twelve parts and the five consonances of music were according to him also due to the proportions of the platonic solids Kepler Mysterium Cosmographicum, chapter 12; in Godwin , p.
To match the consonances with the solids he proposed imagining the string of the monochord to be a circle, which suggests a correspondence with astrological aspects. But here Kepler abandoned the Pythagorean-Platonic esoteric tradition of spiritual reality and turned to modern science, saying the zodiac exist in the imagination rather than in reality. He also concluded that the division of the string is not made on a circle, leaving it to the industry of others to investigate concords and aspects.
Godwin takes this as wisdom not to compare the arithmetically divided circle of the zodiac with the logarithmically divided string Godwin , pp. Upon publication of his Harmonices Mundi in Kepler clashed with the prominent alchemist Robert Fludd , resulting in years of polemics. Interestingly, the Kepler- Fludd controversy has been the subject of a study by the quantum physicist Wolfgang Pauli in , advancing the familiar image of Kepler as a great modern scientist trapped in a backward age of superstition James , p.
Pauli does not argue that Kepler was right and Fludd wrong, but that both were gripped by their ideas. After Kepler the heavenly harmony of the planets in terms of astronomy was expressed by Galileo and was common to a generation of scientists, music theoreticians and artists for instance Martin Mersenne: Harmonie universelle; Athanasius Kirchner: Musurgia universalis; John Heydon: The harmony of the world but the link to astrology and magic had fewer followers.
This well-ordered picture of the world saw the light of day in the years ; Isaac Newton was one of its principal founders Proust , p. For the purpose of this essay it is important to note that the mysterious connections between planets, stars, gods and zodiac had disappeared from the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p.
The world view that dominated the Age of Enlightenment valued proof and clockwork, and had little sympathy for divination or enchantment.
The mysterious aspect of astrology and music found shelter in such movements as the Hermetic tradition, the Freemasons, and in the works of individual researchers, poets, artists, and musicians. There was a subtle change in the attitude of the Age of Enlightenment scholar to number: For our subject this means heavenly harmony was no longer an aspect of the soul that moves the world, but a quality of the movements of the heavenly bodies.
Research was directed towards understanding matter itself, not its cause.
One could argue the Enlightenment had thereby left the domain of the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmology. They all wrote on the Harmony of the Spheres, but did not express it as a tone-zodiac.
The heavenly harmony reappeared in the romantic and modern era in the Theosophical and Anthroposophical movements, where astrology also made a sort of come-back.
In and Rudolf Steiner gave lectures on the nature of music.
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Each time the human being falls asleep and loses consciousness, his astral body emerges from his physical body. In this state man is certainly unconscious but living in the spiritual world. The spiritual sounds make an impression on his soul. The human being awakens each morning from a world of the music of the spheres, and from this region of harmony he re-enters the physical world Steiner , p. When man has passed through the portal of death, he passes at the same time from the earthly world into the world of the stars.
Though it appears that I am speaking figuratively, this description is a reality. Imagine the earth, surrounding it the planets, and beyond them the fixed stars, which are traditionally pictured, for good reason, as the Zodiac.
When you look toward the constellation of Aries you have a soul-consonant impression. Perhaps you behold Saturn behind Aries: In this soul-vowel element, which radiates from Saturn into cosmic space, there lives the soul-spiritual consonant element of Aries or Taurus.
You therefore have the planetary sphere that sings in vowels into cosmic space, and you have the fixed stars that ensoul this song of the planetary sphere with consonant elements.
Vividly picture the more serene sphere of the fixed stars and behind it the wandering planets. As a wandering planet passes a constellation of fixed stars, not just one tone but a whole world of tones resounds, and another tone world sounds forth as the planet moves from Aries to Taurus.
Each planet, however, causes a constellation to resound differently. You have in the fixed stars a wonderful cosmic instrument, and the players of this instrument of the Zodiac and fixed stars are the gods of the planets beyond Steiner , pp. Here we have one of the very few people who — as the text implies — may have actually heard the heavenly harmony.
In absence of a testimony of Pythagoras this text may be considered to be the most important statement considering the reality of the heavenly music. Steiner himself explains this spiritual musical world in terms of the Pythagorean music of the spheres Steiner , p.
This idea would imply change in the tone-zodiacs over time. As Steiner was the founder of the worldwide Anthroposophical movement he inspired a number of scholars who 8 It is possible to consider all Anthroposophical music philosophy as belonging to the Pythagorean -Platonic tradition in its general outlines, but I am inclined to see it as a new tradition, as it is based on the authority of Steiner.
Another scholar who claims to have actually encountered the heavenly harmony is the Swiss mathematician Hans Cousto born In , he experienced a personal revelation of the Music of the Spheres Cousto , p. Ever since he has been researching the planetary sounds, paying his respects to Kepler. In his publications however he never mentions any sounds connected with the constellations of the zodiac. It is of course Pythagoras who stands at the source of this idea.
Copernican System. Andreas Cellarius: Harmonia Macrocosmica See http: World on a scale This chapter addresses different properties of music in relation to the tone-zodiac.
Just as the stars are grouped together to form constellations, man makes scales from tones. In nature, there are no scales. Sound in general is made up of waves with different frequencies, but a tone has a single frequency that can be identified as the fundamental pitch plus overtones.
When that pitch is doubled, it results in an octave, tripled an octave plus fifth, and so on, resulting in this series: The Pythagoreans knew this and were thrilled by the fact that whole numbers integers produced consonances, pleasant combinations of tones. Harmonics have been the basis for an esoteric approach to music, for instance overtone-singing, in many ages and cultures But harmonics also present a problem.
When pictured as a spiral, the first 16 harmonics show a beautiful Figure 6: Harmonics as spiral. The first 16 harmonics as a spiral with the intervals.
With each octave the www. From this image it appears that harmonics are the building blocks of music. The Pythagoreans based their musical system on integers and especially on the first 10 An excellent overview is presented in Jonathan Goldman Healing Sounds. To complete the scale with other harmonics they have to be transposed one or more octaves down.
Unfortunately, some do not fit into the Pythagorean scale. They sound slightly out-of-tune, as explained below. Musicians are familiar with the so-called circle of fifths figure 7.
It comprises twelve steps of a fifth apart along a circle, which should bring the series round after seven octaves. Musically the problem is solved by reducing all the Figure 7: Circle of Fifths. The difference between perfect fifths and tempered fifths is hard to notice. However, the resulting positions of the tones in the scale are no longer based on integers and so do not correspond to the Pythagorean idea of heavenly harmony.
Apart from octaves, all intervals in equal temperament are slightly out of tune. Equal temperament was developed in Western Europe with the rise of a new triadic style in the 16th century CE and became general in the 18th century. It consists of only twelve notes, which can be transposed indefinitely and therefore makes it possible to make music in all keys without retuning an instrument.
The deviation of the tempered scale to the first 16 harmonics is given below in cents figure 8. Harmonics as notes. The first 16 harmonics as notes of a tempered scale and the deviation in rounded cents. Sibelius Academy - www2. Two notes an octave apart are normally called the same note.
This may stem from men and women singing together. The cyclic structure of the octave is common to all systems of tuning McClain , p.
It seems likely that the octave was recognized in India, Sumer, Babylon, Egypt, and Palestine well before the cycles of sun, moon, and planets were coordinated with even modest accuracy McClain , p. In most of the tone-zodiacs the octave is represented as a twelve part circle. In fact the circle is not an accurate image as the beginning and end note are not the same but an octave apart; a helix of octaves spinning out of sight might do better.
But even the helix may be questionable; we call notes low and high, but slow and fast would be more appropriate to represent frequencies.
What is low about slow frequencies anyway? Perhaps a spiral, suggesting speed, would be a better representation figure 5. The circle symbol does not seems to point at the mathematics, but at the movement of music.
Music is often poetically described as flowing like a river, suggesting emotion, or floating like a cloud. When this movement is considered to be not linear but circular, that supposes a distant centre, like the centre of the earth, just as the planets and fixed stars circle the earth making the Harmony of the Spheres.
The World Soul is modelled on the intervals of a Pythagorean scale. By contemplation the soul may return to its origins. This suggests that listening to anagogic music is a way to reconnect to the World Soul. Is the twelvefold division of the heavenly circle connected to music? The harmonic series does not suggest a twelve-note scale and so in non-western cultures we find scales with a different number of steps, notably five pentatonic or multiple numbers based on microtone steps.
In the history of western music the scale has slowly evolved towards a set of twelve chromatic notes within the octave, called equal temperament. Twelve steps seem to have a persistent attraction for western musicians, even beyond traditional tonality.
As equal temperament with its twelve interchangeable notes was firmly established, there was no longer any reason to assign importance to specific intervals or consonances, which is called atonality. Atonality was not a break with the past but an inevitable and necessary step, as tonality had reached the end of its useful life in romantic- classical music Fauvel , p. Traditional tonality was perceived as limiting creativity and it was time for a new set of rules allowing more freedom.
It appears the twentieth century featured a permanent struggle to liberate western music from all its traditional forms, in classical music as well as in jazz and popular styles. On the connection of the twelve tone system to the stars Stockhausen says in an interview: So serial thinking is something that's come into our consciousness and will be there forever: It just says: Use all the components of any given number of elements, don't leave out individual elements, use them all with equal importance and try to find an equidistant scale so that certain steps are no larger than others.
It's a s piritual and democratic attitude toward the world. The stars are organized in a serial way. Whenever you look at a certain star sign you find a limited number of elements with different intervals. If we more thoroughly studied the distances and proportions of the stars we'd probably find certain relationships of multiples based on some logarithmic scale or whatever the scale may be Cott , p.
Dodecaphony did not endure. The twentieth century has seen various systems for composing music including one using the chromatic circle of the tone-zodiac. It is the tone clock by the The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. He fitted all possible triads11 and their four transpositions in chromatic circles and arranged them in the form of a clock figure 9.
Schat read Plato and saw the significance of his idea; surprisingly it is among jazz musicians that it found followers. Jazz musicians picked up the idea of heavenly harmony, notably John Coltrane , who studied Indian Figure 9: Tone Clock by Peter Schat. Specific music on the star signs has been composed by the jazz musicians Mary Lou Williams for her Zodiac Suite and Nat Adderley for his Soul Zodiac album In rock music it was Morton Garson who composed the music for the Zodiac album of There are many more compositions on the zodiac, in New Age, New Sacred Music and even electronic music.
Does music have a basis in nature? To consider this question, we have to go back to the fundamental and its harmonics, as this turns sound into tone. Just as the overtones extend upwards from the fundamental, there is a realm of frequencies below, involving sub- harmonics or undertones, difference tones and missing fundamentals.
It seems man perceives much more than he is consciously aware of. Man knows this unconsciously as he can control harmonics, using the mouth and throat to vary the overtones of his vocal sound, thus producing the different vowels a-e-i-o-u. There is no principal difference between speech and music in the use of the vocal cords; it just feels very different and has a different tradition. Obviously man has an unconscious knowledge of the building blocks of music, but using them in singing is a different mode of consciousness than speech.
Where they ever just one? How did music emerge? The book he wrote about it is titled The Singing Neanderthals, which says it all. Homo Sapiens differentiated communication into singing and spoken language around , years ago.
The Neanderthaler never did and died out Mithen , p. The neurologist Ian McGilchrist is also convinced that mankind was singing before it started talking. The evidence of the fossil record is, says McGilchrist, that the control of voice and respiration needed for singing apparently came into being in primitive man long before they would ever have been required by language McGilchrist , p. Observation of the development of language in children confirms that the musical aspects of language do indeed come first.
The child begins to sing earlier than to speak. Unlike speech, music builds on an element of repetition. Recent research has shown that whether we perceive words as speech or music does not depend on the characteristics of the sounds itself but on the attitude of the listener.
Repetition can actually shift the perceptual circuitry such that a segment of speech is heard as music, following the rhythmic and melodic contours rather than the meaning and inviting anticipation and participation instead of separation see Margulis It looks as if the control of the harmonics of the voice has led to the development of speech, while the control of the fundamental has led to the development of music.
Both of these systems are rooted in nature but have clearly developed rules of their own, and drifted apart.
Where speech has primarily become a tool for reasoning, music has become a means to experience emotion. In conclusion I would say that music is a natural human mode of behaviour, even if equal temperament perhaps is not. It seems music belongs to a participatory state of consciousness just as the star signs belong to an animated worldview.
Although only a dozen Greek melodies have been reconstructed and no Roman ones, we have extended information on Greek and Roman music from scholarly musicological treatises, mostly by Neo Pythagorean writers. However, Philolaus, Aristoxenos, Archytas, Nicomachus nor Boethius mention the zodiac in connection to music.
The only ancient authority to do so is the Alexandrian Ptolemy 1st century CE. Ptolemy explains the astrological aspects by invoking music as an analogy, following Pythagorean ideas about the role of the ratios Barton , p. He lays out a two-octave Pythagorean scale14 on a zodiac circle, noting that the rotating movements of the stars are all circular and regular and similar to the movements within the tone-system figure In this form of the tone-zodiac, the octave Figure Tone-Zodiac of Ptolemy Godwin, To the modern sense of consonance it seems strange to portray opposition by the octave and conjunction by the double octave.
McClain thinks Ptolemy selected this scale as a convenient approximation to a whole tone scale in equal-temperament, which fits the duodecimal circle. That makes Ptolemy look strangely modern McClain , p. This comparison, based on the tropics, connects the seven Greek modes with the twelve star signs: Figure Modes and Tropics of Ptolemy Godwin, , p. The musical scale is the same as in figure As this chapter survives only in very corrupt manuscripts it is not very useful not go into detail here Godwin , p.
But it does show that the concept of the tone-zodiac, in different forms, was well-known to Ptolemy. Where the Figure Moon Tone-Zodiac of Ptolemy Godwin, , p. After Ptolemy ancient and medieval scholars in Western Europe discussed the connections between the planetary movements to the musical scale, but not to the zodiac. As more Greek sources became available in the second millennium CE the interest in ancient science, including astrology, grew.
In the Italian Renaissance the tone-zodiac surfaces again. In his tone-zodiac he uses a one-octave scale and places the major seventh as the opposite aspect figure However, he manages to keep the Ptolemaic consonances of whole-tone sextile , fourth square and fifth trine in the same place Godwin , p.
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Voss argues that Ficino is advocating in his letter a tuning system in Figure Tone-Zodiac of Ficino. Voss As Ficino was a practising astrologer and a musician himself he may have chosen to adapt the Ptolemaic tone-zodiac to fit his own practice. Johannes Kepler tried to show that the geometry of the heavens is ruled by musical harmony, connected to the Platonic solids. Kepler also signals the problem of comparing the arithmetically divided circle of the Zodiac with the logarithmically divided string Godwin , p.
Even if he did not discriminate between astronomy and astrology as modern science does, Kepler made a connection between cosmological geometry and musical ratios, not between the character of the zodiacal signs and the experience of consonances or scales in music. In the Age of Enlightenment no new tone-zodiacs appear. The renewed interest in the esoteric wisdom of antiquity in the romantic times of the later nineteenth century reintroduces the idea, which flowers in the theosophical and anthroposophical movements.
On her tone-zodiac she writes: Godwin As the Anthroposophical tone-zodiac is based on equal temperament and keys rather than consonances, it begs the question how this relates to history before modern tuning. Tone-Zodiac of Anny von Lange. They see their own times as chaotic and urge change, expecting the Age of Aquarius to bring about the joining of music, mathematics and astrology in the true universal The Tone-Zodiac Symbol, p. Their style reminds me of the Dutch socialist writers of previous generations.
As practically everybody figuring in this essay except Rudolf Steiner is mentioned, I suspect they are consciously distancing themselves from the Anthroposophical movement. It connects the personality with a fundamental tone according to birth sun sign. A major and minor scale is built on the fundamental, which incorporates the other signs, so that the music connected to the personality has a mix of zodiacal characteristics Henschel , p.
In their book they incorporate an elaborate description of the twelve Figure Tone-Zodiac of the Henschels. Henschel He has blogged on Western polyphony: Tone-Zodiac of McMullin.
His tone- Godwin , p. Tone-Zodiac of Stockhausen. The Figure tempos of 3: Tone-Spiral of the melodies Schneider. As Stockhausen was something of a philosopher and mystic, his tone-zodiac is expressing more than a program for this composition; its philosophy underlies much of his later work and is connected to his belief that his soul came to earth from the star Sirius.
As we move in this chapter towards modern times scholars and artists cannot easily be classified as Pythagorean-Platonic. Modern thinkers use a greater variety of sources than just Greek philosophy, including ideas on heavenly harmony from other cultures and times. A very peculiar interpretation of the connection between the zodiac and music can be found in the work of the ethnomusicologist Marius Schneider , who created an entirely original system that traces its origin to the world-wide spiritual culture of the Megalithic Figure Tone-Spiral of Schneider.
It is based on a scale Godwin , p. So far I have presented tone-zodiacs appearing in books. On the internet one can now occasionally find a tone-zodiac, mostly by astrologers using a chromatic scale which connects the colours of the rainbow to tonalities, often inspired by the Anthroposophic tradition figure Zodiac Color Wheel.
Daniel Joseph Min angelfire. What makes the tone-zodiac immediately recognizable is the form of the circle. What does it mean as a symbol? A tone- zodiac is not a representation of physical reality, because the constellations are not distributed into twelve equal parts of the zodiac, nor does the structure of sound naturally fit into twelve equal steps within the octave.
The circles that we today associate with astrology and music are the horoscope and the circle of fifths. The tone-zodiac expresses an ordering of natural phenomena by two different man-made systems, astrology and music, in such a way that they somehow correspond. But unfortunately these systems do not really correspond, as the previous chapters have made clear.
So what brings them together? The astrologer John Addey has pointed out that astrology is full of circles and circular motions. Three of these are usually given precedence: Secondly there is the circle of the houses, that is, the diurnal circle of the planets as they rise, culminate and set each day.
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Thirdly there is the circle of aspects as a planet moves from its conjunction with another body round to the opposition and back again to the conjunction. The circle is the most comprehensive of symbols. In itself it represents the idea of a whole, and in its largest significance the idea of infinity and eternity.
On the nature and significance of the circle he writes: It is one because the infinite radii drawn from the centre to the circumference are equal, and these are nothing other than the very unity which automatically forms the circle according to the opening of the compasses, such as does not, and cannot, exist in any other figure Tartini Scienza Platonica; Godwin , pp. What these two writers, from the worlds of stars and music respectively, have in common is the desire to attach more meaning to the circle than meets the eye.
Nor can one hope to define or explain it. Mandala is the Hindu term for circle, a ritual geometric diagram, which facilitates contemplation and concentration. It is a combination of a traditional structure and the possibility of free interpretation. Buddhists use it in meditation by entering the image with the mind. To Cirlot, the mandala is, above all, an image and a synthesis of the dualistic aspects of differentiation and unification, of variety and unity, the external and the internal, the diffuse and the concentrated Cirlot , pp.
Jung says the mandala is probably the simplest model of a concept of wholeness, and one which spontaneously arises in the mind as a representation of the struggle and reconciliation of opposites Jung , p. Ernst McClain consequently calls the tone-zodiac a tone-mandala.
The circular symbol obviously has a universal meaning, expressing unity and wholeness. In the case of the tone-zodiac, the unity of astrology and music, we have seen that the two systems do not naturally correspond. To connect the circle with this vision we now turn the two- dimensional circle into a three-dimensional object, a cylinder. This is analogous to how Jung connects the mandala with the mythological world tree: From these ends is extended the spindle of Necessity, on which all the revolutions turn.
The spindle turns on the knees of Necessity; and on the upper surface of each circle is a Siren, who goes round with them, hymning a single tone or note. The Spindle of Ananke is at the centre of the Platonic cosmos, as expressed in the Republic and the Timaeus. It implies totality and wholeness by introducing a centre around which everything revolves, an axis mundi.
In Jungian terms it expresses the inclusion of the ego by the Self. It includes the tone-zodiac in the Harmony of the Spheres. What this synthesis is remains unknown. Conclusions In this essay I have attempted to add depth to the tone-zodiac by treating it as a symbol, exploring the underlying realms of astrology, cosmology, music and the sacred.
As a conclusion I now summarize the main ideas of the previous chapters. The tone-zodiac symbol brings the signs of the zodiac and music together within the Pythagorean-Platonic vision of heavenly harmony, which is also the basis of the planetary Harmony of the Spheres. The circle of star signs connects the tones of a scale to the signs of the zodiac, and beyond that to the revolutions of the heavens that reflect divine reason and eternity.
The circle of musical tones builds on the division of the octave in the twelve steps of equal temperament, but the power to move is its special feature. From a psychological standpoint the tone-zodiac refers to music as a non-rational, participatory state of consciousness just as the star signs belong to an animated worldview and a divinatory attitude.
What is the synthesis of music and astrology in the tone-zodiac?
There can be no final answer to that question, because - as Jung has pointed out15 - the meaning of a symbol will never be fully explained, as it lies beyond the grasp of reason; therefore the synthesis must remain unknown. However, I would like to share some intuitions sparked off by researching the tone- zodiac that are not conclusions but rather possible subjects for more research. The systems of astrology and music do not easily correspond. The twelve part division of the natural phenomena is a tour-de-force.
As Joscelyn Godwin noted, it may be pointless to try to connect the arithmetically divided circle of the zodiac starting from the number 0 with the logarithmically divided string starting from the number 1.
In order to come to a real synthesis some flexibility from both sides would be demanded. That would mean for the astrologer to relinquish the deterministic, Ptolemaic approach and to shift to a divinatory, poetic mode of working with the astrological data. The common ground of astrology and music 15 See page The circle has its limitations to bridge the two worlds and it would be interesting to bring in other inspiring forms as well, for instances the diagrams made by the astrological aspects or Fibonacci numbers.
The tone- zodiac then becomes part of a series of structures to inspire anagogic music, a display of the quadrivium in images and sounds, introducing the soul to the divine. The Timaeus creation myth provides the holistic framework of the tone-zodiac.
Platonic cosmology shows how man can connect to the eternal as expressed in the heavenly harmony. It introduces a moral element, which is unusual in both astrology and music. In this light, the tone-zodiac acquires the character of a road sign on the philosophic path to salvation.
Reason in the Platonic universe is not disconnected from the sacred and the eternal or from human emotion, intuition and instinct, as in modern science.
In this sense the tone-zodiac becomes a symbol of psychic wholeness, reconciling opposites. As a mandala, the symbol at once expresses this idea and invites the participant to a transformative learning experience. This essay has stressed the meaning of the tone-zodiac in terms of an inner world. In the ancient world the stars were gods, but today we would need to shift our conscious attitude in order to connect to archetypal images.
Music may play a role as a promising means to reach that inner world.
Carl Jung declared in A world created from tone, Nada Brahma, without language barriers and cultural divisions, could be the direction of consciousness in the New Age.
There is a strong and persistent tradition from antiquity to the present that gives testimony to the soul seeing light and hearing heavenly harmony after the death of the body.
Whatever the contemporary scientific evidence from near-death experiences, we can never be certain whether this music exists by itself or as a subconscious projection of the hearer. Perhaps our point of view — temporal, embodied — prevents us from truly comprehending the other possibility, namely that the heavenly music projects our souls. Eyebright Books. Barnes, J. The Revised Oxford Translation 2 vols.
On the Heavens: Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Barton, T. Berendt, J. Nada Brahma. Music and the Landscape of Consciousness. Rochester, VT: Destiny Books. On Listening to the World. Element Books.
Boethius, A. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Bowman, W. Oxford University Press. Brumbaugh, R. Reprint, New York: Kraus Reprint Corporation, Burkert, W.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Campion, N. Floris Books. Volume 1: The ancient and classical worlds. Hambledon Continuum. The last pages show a diagram with a moveable dial that is 1 For example: Feb. The day of St. Christopher celebrated on Jan. The term Gothic was first used to describe this script in 15th-century Italy, because Renaissance Humanists believed it was barbaric and Gothic was the synonym for it.
It is the directly derived from Carolingian minuscule, developing from it because increasingly literate 12th-century Europe required new books in many different subjects to be produced quickly, which Carolingian wasn't able to do because it was time- consuming and labor-intensive to produce.
The July page shows the zodiac sign Leo, including stars marking constellation, done with pen drawing with color wash, on vellum. The text that follows the zodiac consists of lunar year6 table and saints that are celebrated on a specific day. Leo is the fifth astrological sign of the zodiac, deriving from the constellation of Leo.
Under the tropical zodiac, the Sun transits this area approximately between July 23 and August The symbol of the lion is based on the Nemean7 lion, with an impenetrable hide. On the last pages we can see a diagram with a moveable dial that is marked for finding Pentecost, Easter, Septuagesima and Sundays and labelled with zodiac months on the outer edge.
The other page shows a bearded and nude male, with parts of body labelled for corresponding zodiac sign and a text on the right showing the relation between the parts of the body and the constellations with a reference to Ptolemy. The form of illuminated calendar manuscript was very wide, especially because the medieval calendar served as a map of the Church year, showing the when each saint was celebrated and when moveable feasts, such as Easter, occurred, but they could also depicted signs of the zodiac and the specific labors of each month.
There were local variants that included local saints, as is the case with the Liturgical Calendar for Ravenna, or some personal tastes of individual patrons. The Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar system that originally evolved out of a lunar calendar system. It was eventually killed by Heracles. Textura is directly derived from Carolingian minuscule, but simpler from it.
The letters were tall and narrow, formed by sharp, straight, angular lines, which is different from the typically round Carolingian and the lines didn't connect with each other, especially in curved letters, as well as the minims, making it difficult to distinguish letters.
The script also had a lot more scribal abbreviations than Carolingian, adding to the speed in which it could be written.Is the Demiurge the God of Heavenly Harmony? The spindle turns on the knees of Necessity; and on the upper surface of each circle is a Siren, who goes round with them, hymning a single tone or note. One could argue the Enlightenment had thereby left the domain of the Pythagorean-Platonic cosmology.
However, he manages to keep the Ptolemaic consonances of whole-tone sextile , fourth square and fifth trine in the same place Godwin , p.
It is of course Pythagoras who stands at the source of this idea. Its History and Technique. Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. In this state man is certainly unconscious but living in the spiritual world.
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