POLLUTION LESS ENGINE PDF
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The Pollution Less Engine The Sterling Engine Mechanical Seminar Paper aims at developing working model of a Pollution Less Engine, The. And the basic advantage of this engine is that the amounts of gas is fixed and recycle process. That is there is no exhaust and hence this engine is pollution less. Stirling-cycle engine is recent research of pollution less engine. 1. HISTORY: The Stirling-cycle engine has been patented in by Robert.
In a submarine application, the Stirling engine offers the advantage of being exceptionally quiet when running. Stirling engines are frequently used in the dish version of Concentrated Solar Power systems.
A mirrored dish similar to a very large satellite dish directs and concentrates sunlight onto a thermal receiver, which absorbs and collects the heat and using a fluid transfers it into the Stirling engine. The resulting mechanical power is then used to run a generator or alternator to produce electricity.
CHP units are being installed in people's homes. A Stirling engine  is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas the working fluid at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. Closed-cycle, in this context, means a thermodynamic system in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, and regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat exchanger and thermal store, known as the regenerator.
Strictly speaking, the inclusion of the regenerator is what differentiates a Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines. They are also capable of quiet operation and can use almost any heat source. The heat energy source is generated external to the Stirling engine rather than by internal combustion as with the Otto cycle or Diesel cycle engines.
Because the Stirling engine is compatible with alternative and renewable energy sources it could become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as depletion of oil supplies and climate change. This type of engine is currently generating interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power CHP units, in which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine.
Robert Stirling invented the first practical example of a closed cycle air engine in , and it was suggested by Fleeming Jenkin as early as that all such engines should therefore generically be called Stirling engines. This naming proposal found little favour, and the various types on the market continued to be known by the name of their individual designers or manufacturers, e.
In the s, the Philips company was seeking a suitable name for its own version of the 'air engine', which by that time had been tested with working fluids other than air, and decided upon 'Stirling engine' in April This contrasts with an internal combustion engine where heat input is by combustion of a fuel within the body of the working fluid.
Most of the many possible implementations of the Stirling engine fall into the category of reciprocating piston engine. Functional description[ edit ] The engine is designed so the working gas is generally compressed in the colder portion of the engine and expanded in the hotter portion resulting in a net conversion of heat into work.
Cut-away diagram of a rhombic drive beta configuration Stirling engine design: Hot cylinder wall Coolant inlet and outlet pipes Thermal insulation separating the two cylinder ends Power piston Linkage crank and flywheels Not shown: Heat source and heat sinks. In this design the displacer piston is constructed without a purpose-built regenerator.
As a consequence of closed cycle operation, the heat driving a Stirling engine must be transmitted from a heat source to the working fluid by heat exchangers and finally to a heat sink. A Stirling engine system has at least one heat source, one heat sink and up to five[ clarification needed ] heat exchangers. Some types may combine or dispense with some of these. If solar power is used as a heat source, regular solar mirrors and solar dishes may be utilised. The use of Fresnel lenses and mirrors has also been advocated, for example in planetary surface exploration.
Typical implementations are internal and external fins or multiple small bore tubes. Designing Stirling engine heat exchangers is a balance between high heat transfer with low viscous pumping losses , and low dead space unswept internal volume.
Engines that operate at high powers and pressures require that heat exchangers on the hot side be made of alloys that retain considerable strength at high temperatures and that don't corrode or creep.
Main article: Regenerative heat exchanger In a Stirling engine, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction then the other, taking heat from the fluid in one direction, and returning it in the other.
It can be as simple as metal mesh or foam, and benefits from high surface area, high heat capacity, low conductivity and low flow friction.
The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat that would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly.
As a secondary effect, increased thermal efficiency yields a higher power output from a given set of hot and cold end heat exchangers. These usually limit the engine's heat throughput. In practice this additional power may not be fully realized as the additional "dead space" unswept volume and pumping loss inherent in practical regenerators reduces the potential efficiency gains from regeneration. The design challenge for a Stirling engine regenerator is to provide sufficient heat transfer capacity without introducing too much additional internal volume 'dead space' or flow resistance.
These inherent design conflicts are one of many factors that limit the efficiency of practical Stirling engines. A typical design is a stack of fine metal wire meshes , with low porosity to reduce dead space, and with the wire axes perpendicular to the gas flow to reduce conduction in that direction and to maximize convective heat transfer.
There are no explosion taking place
Many small 'toy' Stirling engines, particularly low-temperature difference LTD types, do not have a distinct regenerator component and might be considered hot air engines; however a small amount of regeneration is provided by the surface of the displacer itself and the nearby cylinder wall, or similarly the passage connecting the hot and cold cylinders of an alpha configuration engine.
Heat sink[ edit ] The larger the temperature difference between the hot and cold sections of a Stirling engine, the greater the engine's efficiency.
The heat sink is typically the environment the engine operates in, at ambient temperature. In the case of medium to high power engines, a radiator is required to transfer the heat from the engine to the ambient air. Marine engines have the advantage of using cool ambient sea, lake, or river water, which is typically cooler than ambient air. In the case of combined heat and power systems, the engine's cooling water is used directly or indirectly for heating purposes, raising efficiency.
Alternatively, heat may be supplied at ambient temperature and the heat sink maintained at a lower temperature by such means as cryogenic fluid see Liquid nitrogen economy or iced water. Displacer[ edit ] The displacer is a special-purpose piston , used in Beta and Gamma type Stirling engines, to move the working gas back and forth between the hot and cold heat exchangers.
Depending on the type of engine design, the displacer may or may not be sealed to the cylinder, i. Configurations[ edit ] There are three major types of Stirling engines, that are distinguished by the way they move the air between the hot and cold areas: The alpha configuration has two power pistons, one in a hot cylinder, one in a cold cylinder, and the gas is driven between the two by the pistons; it is typically in a V-formation with the pistons joined at the same point on a crankshaft.
The beta configuration has a single cylinder with a hot end and a cold end, containing a power piston and a 'displacer' that drives the gas between the hot and cold ends. It is typically used with a rhombic drive to achieve the phase difference between the displacer and power pistons, but they can be joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft.
The gamma configuration has two cylinders: one containing a displacer, with a hot and a cold end, and one for the power piston; they are joined to form a single space with the same pressure in both cylinders; the pistons are typically in parallel and joined 90 degrees out of phase on a crankshaft.
Alpha configuration operation[ edit ] An alpha Stirling contains two power pistons in separate cylinders, one hot and one cold.
The hot cylinder is situated inside the high temperature heat exchanger and the cold cylinder is situated inside the low temperature heat exchanger. This type of engine has a high power-to-volume ratio but has technical problems because of the usually high temperature of the hot piston and the durability of its seals.
The crank angle has a major effect on efficiency and the best angle frequently must be found experimentally.
The engine. Stirling engine uses two cylinders. The Stirling engine only makes power These engines are quieter in during the first part of the cycle.
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One way to decrease the pressure is to cool the gas to a lower temperature. In part one of the cycle. There are two main ways to increase Gas inside the engine never the power output of a Stirling cycle. Increasing the inside cylinder of engine. In parts three of the cycle. The main pollution less. This The Stirling engine is the machine is especially engine. Hence this engine is highly preferred in automobile sector finding its application in submarines to hybrid cars.
Due to the above specified advantages the striling engine is. The gas remains fixed that is there is no compressors are then used to drive a exhaust and hence this engine is gas turbine expander. Stirling Thermal Motor This motor uses heater tubes.
The Stirling engine. And the basic arranged with a degree phase advantage of this engine is that the difference with each piston connected amount of gas inside the chamber to a gas compressor.
This Four Cylinders Free-Piston Alpha engine can work on any type of fuel Engine whether it is conventional or non- The four cylinders are physically conventional fuel. The generation is required. Pollution Less Engine Uploaded by micmech. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Formulas and constants for gas engine design.. Jump to Page. Search inside document.
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Pollution Less Engine
If one wishes to keep dead volume as small as possible they will have difficulty designing a good heater, cooler, and regenerator while keeping pumping losses low.
The solution is to compromise somewhat on all five points in order to achieve the best design possible. The challenge is to find the optimal balance resulting in the best engine design. Alpha Engine The figure below shows a standard alpha engine. This repeatedly forces the working gas back and forth through the heater, regenerator and cooler. As a result, the gas is repeatedly heated and cooled, and power is produced. Alpha engines are the simplest to understand, and are the easiest to construct.
But one of their main disadvantages is that they can require temperature resistant seals for the piston exposed to high temperature shown on the right. Beta Engine The figure below shows a standard beta engine. Beta engines are compact in size. They use a power piston and displacer, which are in line with each other. Unlike an alpha engine that uses two pistons, the beta engine uses one power piston and displacer. The purpose of the power piston is to generate power, while the purpose of the displacer is to move the working gas back and forth through the heater, regenerator, and cooler.
As a result, the pushing force experienced by the displacer is very little compared to that of the power piston. The power piston, displacer, and displacer rod are sealed around their gaps to prevent the leakage of working gas.
The seal for the displacer is placed on the end closest to the compression space, in order to avoid direct contact with the hot working gas in the expansion space.
As a result, this seal does not need to be temperature resistant.
The seals for the displacer rod and power piston do not need to be temperature resistant either since they are constantly exposed to cool engine temperatures. This is due to their physical proximity to the compression space. Gamma Engine The figure below shows a standard gamma engine.
This can make it easier to construct the mechanical drive and linkages since the power piston and displacer are a certain distance apart instead of aligned with each other. For this reason, the gamma configuration is often the preferred choice by Stirling engine enthusiasts. A disadvantage of the gamma engine is that it unavoidably introduces dead volume in the compression space due to the physical separation of the displacer and power piston.
Stirling Engine Efficiency The potential efficiency of a Stirling engine is high. It is comparable to the efficiency of a diesel engine, but is significantly higher than that of a spark-ignition gasoline engine. It reached a peak thermal efficiency of Despite its greater fuel economy, the MOD II engine was discontinued due to high development cost, and concerns that it would not compete with Internal Combustion engines gasoline and diesel in terms of responsiveness.
These include: 1 expansion space piston in alpha engines , 2 expansion space cylinder, 3 displacer in beta and gamma engines , 4 heater, 5 regenerator matrix, 6 regenerator housing. Helium is the second best. In many descriptions of Stirling engines a single working space is given, and the thermodynamic analysis follows from that.
The working gas is expanded and compressed using a single piston. And the heating and cooling takes place at the outside surface. Although it works well as a basic description of the Stirling cycle, this analysis cannot be directly applied to real power-producing engines.
In a real engine you need a separate expansion and compression space, in which the working gas is shuttled back and forth through heat exchangers. This is the only way to enable the rapid heating and cooling of the working gas necessary for high-power engines, operating at high speeds. Therefore, the Ideal cycle analysis cannot be used to model real engines.Because the hot cylinder is at its maximum volume and the cold cylinder is at the top of its stroke minimum volume , the volume of the system is increased by expansion into the cold cylinder.
The volume of the system increases by expansion of the hot cylinder. The ratio of the area of the heat exchangers to the volume of the machine increases by the implementation of a flat design.
The patent also described in detail the employment of one form of the economiser in his unique closed-cycle air engine design  in which application it is now generally known as a " regenerator ". Air Pollution:
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